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Article

Multiple Correspondence Analysis of Emergencies Attended by Integrated Security Services

1
Departamento de Eléctrica y Electrónica, Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Sangolqui 171103, Ecuador
2
Departamento de Teoría de la Señal y Comunicaciones, Sistemas Telemáticos y Computación, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, 28943 Fuenlabrada, Spain
3
Center for Computational Simulation, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Boadilla del Monte, 28660 Madrid, Spain
4
Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON N9B 3P4, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(7), 1396; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9071396
Received: 9 February 2019 / Revised: 20 March 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 3 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering)
A public safety answering point (PSAP) receives thousands of security alerts and attends a similar number of emergencies every day, and all the information related to those events is saved to be post-processed and scrutinized. Visualization and interpretation of emergency data can provide fundamental feedback to the first-response institutions, to managers planning resource distributions, and to all the instances participating in the emergency-response cycle. This paper develops the application of multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) of emergency responses in a PSAP, with the objective of finding informative relationships among the different categories of registered and attended events. We propose a simple yet statistically meaningful method to scrutinize the variety of events and recorded information in conventional PSAPs. For this purpose, MCA is made on the categorical features of the available report forms, and a statistical description is achieved from it by combining bootstrap resampling and Parzen windowing, in order to provide the user with the most relevant factors, their significance, and a meaningful representation of the event grouping trends in a given database. We analyzed the case of the 911-emergency database from Quito, Ecuador, which includes 1,078,846 events during 2014. Individual analysis of the first-response institutions showed that there are groups with very related categories, whereas their joint analysis showed significant relationships among several types of events. This was the case for fire brigades, military, and municipal services attending large-scale forest fires, where they work in a combined way. Independence could be established among actions in other categories, which was the case for specific police events (as drug selling and distribution) or fire brigades events (as fire threats). We also showed that a very low number of factors can be enough to accurately represent the dynamics of frequent events. View Full-Text
Keywords: public-safety answering point; first-response institutions; multiple correspondence analysis; ECU-911; Parzen windows; bootstrap resampling public-safety answering point; first-response institutions; multiple correspondence analysis; ECU-911; Parzen windows; bootstrap resampling
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MDPI and ACS Style

Corral-De-Witt, D.; Carrera, E.V.; Muñoz-Romero, S.; Tepe, K.; Rojo-Álvarez, J.L. Multiple Correspondence Analysis of Emergencies Attended by Integrated Security Services. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 1396. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9071396

AMA Style

Corral-De-Witt D, Carrera EV, Muñoz-Romero S, Tepe K, Rojo-Álvarez JL. Multiple Correspondence Analysis of Emergencies Attended by Integrated Security Services. Applied Sciences. 2019; 9(7):1396. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9071396

Chicago/Turabian Style

Corral-De-Witt, Danilo, Enrique V. Carrera, Sergio Muñoz-Romero, Kemal Tepe, and José L. Rojo-Álvarez 2019. "Multiple Correspondence Analysis of Emergencies Attended by Integrated Security Services" Applied Sciences 9, no. 7: 1396. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9071396

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