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Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9030586

Experimental Evaluation of Screw Pullout Force and Adjacent Bone Damage According to Pedicle Screw Design Parameters in Normal and Osteoporotic Bones

1
Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Busan 49241, Korea
2
Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan 49241, Korea
3
Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan 49241, Korea
4
S-ONE Bio CORP., Busan 49241, Korea
5
Department of Mechatronics Convergence Engineering, Changwon National university, Changwon 51140, Korea
6
Department of Anatomy and Department of Biomedical Informatics, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan 50612, Korea
7
School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Busan 49241, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 November 2018 / Revised: 3 January 2019 / Accepted: 1 February 2019 / Published: 11 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Materials)
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Abstract

This paper proposes an optimum design of the pedicle screw with respect to bone density and variables of the screw design. First, pedicle screws are designed and manufactured with design variables including the core diameter and conical angle that affect the pullout force of the pedicle screw. Variables of bone density are also classified into two groups, namely grade 10 (0.16 g/cc) with osteoporotic bone density and grade 20 (0.32 g/cc) with normal bone density. The effect of each parameter on the pullout force and relationship between the pullout force and screw designs are investigated. Furthermore, bone damage after fixation failure or insertion in the patient body is considered separately from the pullout strength. Therefore, cross sectional images of the artificial bone are observed to analyze the degree of damage after the pullout test of the pedicle screw by using micro-CT (computed tomography). The region and degree of bone damage are quantitatively analyzed. The effects of the core diameter and conical angle of the pedicle screw on the pulling force, bone damage, and fracture behavior are analyzed via the aforementioned experiments and analysis. An optimal pedicle screw design is suggested based on the experimental results. View Full-Text
Keywords: pedicle screw; screw design parameter; normal bone; osteoporotic bone; pullout test; pullout force; adjacent bone damage; micro-CT; 3D surface analysis plot pedicle screw; screw design parameter; normal bone; osteoporotic bone; pullout test; pullout force; adjacent bone damage; micro-CT; 3D surface analysis plot
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Lee, E.S.; Goh, T.S.; Heo, J.-Y.; Kim, Y.-J.; Lee, S.-E.; Kim, Y.H.; Lee, C.-S. Experimental Evaluation of Screw Pullout Force and Adjacent Bone Damage According to Pedicle Screw Design Parameters in Normal and Osteoporotic Bones. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 586.

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