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Correction published on 1 August 2019, see Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(15), 3123.
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Advances in Engineering and Application of Optogenetic Indicators for Neuroscience

Media Lab, McGovern Institute for Brain Research, and Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
INBICST, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 123182 Moscow, Russia
Kurchatov Institute National Research Center, 123182 Moscow, Russia
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 562;
Received: 15 January 2019 / Revised: 1 February 2019 / Accepted: 2 February 2019 / Published: 8 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Advances and Applications of Optogenetics)
Our ability to investigate the brain is limited by available technologies that can record biological processes in vivo with suitable spatiotemporal resolution. Advances in optogenetics now enable optical recording and perturbation of central physiological processes within the intact brains of model organisms. By monitoring key signaling molecules noninvasively, we can better appreciate how information is processed and integrated within intact circuits. In this review, we describe recent efforts engineering genetically-encoded fluorescence indicators to monitor neuronal activity. We summarize recent advances of sensors for calcium, potassium, voltage, and select neurotransmitters, focusing on their molecular design, properties, and current limitations. We also highlight impressive applications of these sensors in neuroscience research. We adopt the view that advances in sensor engineering will yield enduring insights on systems neuroscience. Neuroscientists are eager to adopt suitable tools for imaging neural activity in vivo, making this a golden age for engineering optogenetic indicators. View Full-Text
Keywords: optogenetic tools; neuroscience; calcium sensor; voltage sensor; neurotransmitters optogenetic tools; neuroscience; calcium sensor; voltage sensor; neurotransmitters
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Piatkevich, K.D.; Murdock, M.H.; Subach, F.V. Advances in Engineering and Application of Optogenetic Indicators for Neuroscience. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 562.

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