# Effect of In-Shoe Foot Orthosis Contours on Heel Pain Due to Calcaneal Spurs

^{1}

^{2}

^{3}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## Featured Application

**The proposed method for easily obtaining contoured insoles from the variation of the insole foot area together with the pain pressure threshold could potentially be applied to orthotic shoe designers for reducing pain in calcaneal spur patients.**

## Abstract

## 1. Introduction

^{®}insole sensing system [19], or used capacitance sensor/transducers (the PEDAR

^{®}pressure measurement system) [20].

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### 2.1. Determining the Contour of the Shoe Insole

- (1)
- Evaluate the area 100% A and 0% A using Rhinoceros software.
- (2)
- Generate the xyz-coordinates of 100%_A by using Microsoft Excel which integrated with AutoCAD software as presented in Figure 3b.
- (3)
- Adjust the z-coordinates of 100% A to 75% A; initially specify a reduced percentage of 5% (reduced percentage z-coordinates of 100% A and 0% A are 0% and 100%, respectively) and display the coordinates in AutoCAD to evaluate its area using Rhinoceros software.
- (4)
- If the area is still much greater than 5 mm
^{2}[28] compared with Equation (1), repeat the procedure four times by increasing the percentage of 5% reduction. - (5)
- If the difference of area approaches 5 mm
^{2}, increase the percentage reduction to 1–2%.

_{max}and z

_{min}express the z-coordinates at 100% A (z

_{100%_A}) and the largest and smallest z-coordinates at 100% A, respectively.

#### 2.2. Measuring Pressure in Heel Area

^{3}− 1643.9 V

^{2}+ 1083.5 V − 31.02

## 3. Results

^{2}and averaged 2.09 ± 0.63 kg/cm

^{2}. The result shows that the smallest PMCP occurs at the anterior site, and the PMCP at the medial site was significantly lower than at the lateral site.

## 4. Discussion

^{2}, respectively).

## 5. Conclusions

^{2}and 1.73 kg/cm

^{2}, respectively, which are significantly lower than the average PMCPs (89.0% and 17.1%, respectively), while the average pressures at 75% insole foot area are 0.19 kg/cm

^{2}and 0.69 kg/cm

^{2}, respectively, which are also significantly lower than the average PMCPs (91.1% and 67.0%, respectively). On the other hand, the average pressures at MH for a 50% and 75% insole foot area are 2.59 kg/cm

^{2}and 2.20 kg/cm

^{2}, respectively, which are still greater than the average PMCPs (19.3% and 4.7%, respectively). One hundred percent insole foot area can also be used, but is not recommended—even though the average pressure in all regions and the percentage of insole foot area are smaller than the average PMCP—because it requires large production costs.

## Author Contributions

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**(

**up**) Location and dimension of the spur in the plantar view; (

**down**) Five locations of the pressure pain threshold (PPT) around spur growth.

**Figure 2.**Example outputs of 3D scanning: (

**a**) footprint depth in difference of colors; (

**b**) 3D foam negative impression; (

**c**) footprint 3D positive model.

**Figure 3.**(

**a**) Flowchart evaluation of n% insole foot area; (

**b**) Table of 3D coordinates (x, y, and z axis) generated from AutoCAD with the visualization of the increment of x- and y-axis.

**Figure 6.**Calcaneal loading during standing for the five percentage areas of shoe insole, compared to the PMCP measured using the algometer (mean ± SD).

**Figure 7.**The pressure at the MH, LH and CH for the five percentage areas of shoe insole and each length of spur, as presented in Table 5.

Subject Number | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Height, cm | 155 | 157 | 151 | 153 | 153 | 172 | 150 | 156 | 146 | 159 | 164 | 163 | 144 |

Weight, kg | 57.2 | 60 | 50 | 52 | 70 | 63.8 | 59 | 68.6 | 55.3 | 84.6 | 62.7 | 72 | 67.6 |

FL, mm | 249 | 266 | 237 | 240 | 252 | 276 | 237 | 251 | 240 | 240 | 270 | 273 | 234 |

FW, mm | 98 | 118 | 106 | 91 | 100 | 108 | 96 | 102 | 94 | 100 | 100 | 99 | 90 |

Shoe size | 40 | 42 | 38 | 38 | 40 | 43 | 38 | 40 | 38 | 39 | 40 | 42 | 37 |

L, mm | 4.5 | 3.0 | 1.5 | 4.0 | 5.0 | 3.0 | 4.0 | 7.0 | 6.0 | 7.0 | 2.0 | 4.0 | 6.0 |

CH, mm | 37.4 | 39.9 | 35.6 | 36.0 | 37.8 | 41.4 | 35.6 | 37.7 | 36.0 | 36.0 | 40.5 | 41.0 | 35.1 |

S, mm | 38.0 | 34.0 | 36.0 | 38.0 | 39.0 | 41.0 | 35.0 | 39.0 | 30.0 | 38.0 | 34.0 | 34.0 | 36.0 |

(CH-S), mm | −0.6 | 5.9 | −0.5 | −2.0 | −1.2 | 0.4 | 0.5 | −1.4 | 6.0 | −2.0 | 6.5 | 7.0 | −0.9 |

Heel Site | Number of Feet | PMCP (kg/cm^{2}) | PMCP Related to the Length of Spur Types (kg/cm^{2}) Mean ± SD (Number of Feet) | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Mean ± SD (Range) | Small | Medium | Large | ||

1 | 1 | 1.32 | 1.32 (1) | - | - |

2 | 5 | 1.63 ± 0.25 (1.24–1.87) | - | 1.24 (1) | 1.73 ± 0.13 (4) |

3 | 2 | 3.13 ± 0.25 (2.95–3.3) | 2.95 (1) | 3.3 (1) | - |

4 | 2 | 2.38 ± 0.37 (2.11–2.64) | - | 2.38 ± 0.37 (2) | - |

5 | 3 | 2.25 ± 0.41 (1.92–2.71) | - | 2.25 ± 0.41 (3) | - |

**Table 3.**The deduction percentage and area of shoe insole result of modification of z-coordinate and calculation using Equation (1) from one of the study subjects.

% Shoe Insole Area | % Deduction | Shoe Insole Area (mm^{2}) | |
---|---|---|---|

From Modification of z-Coordinates | From Equation (1) | ||

100 | 0 | 17,972 | 17,972 |

75 | 16.5 | 17,063 | 17,071 |

50 | 34.5 | 16,169 | 16,170 |

25 | 56 | 15,266 | 15,269 |

0 | 100 | 14,368 | 14,368 |

Percentage Area of Shoe Insole | 0% | 25% | 50% | 75% | 100% |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Calcaneal region | Comparison to the BW (mean ± SD) | ||||

MH | 10.14 ± 1.46 | 8.93 ± 1.16 | 8.26 ± 1.65 | 7.01 ± 1.09 | 3.64 ± 0.60 |

LH | 7.46 ± 1.28 | 6.70 ± 1.06 | 5.53 ± 0.91 | 2.23 ± 0.52 | 0.93 ± 0.16 |

CH | 1.44 ± 0.20 | 1.05 ± 0.21 | 0.73 ± 0.09 | 0.59 ± 0.09 | 0.24 ± 0.06 |

Calcaneal region | Comparison to all sensors (mean ± SD) | ||||

MH | 53.31 ± 0.82 | 53.60 ± 1.55 | 56.69 ± 1.26 | 71.49 ± 2.36 | 75.47 ± 3.04 |

LH | 39.11 ± 1.01 | 40.11 ± 1.04 | 38.20 ± 0.78 | 22.44 ± 2.55 | 19.44 ± 2.41 |

CH | 7.58 ± 0.18 | 6.29 ± 0.51 | 5.11 ± 0.48 | 6.07 ± 0.20 | 5.09 ± 1.03 |

Spur Length | PMCP (kg/cm ^{2}) | Calcaneal Region | Calcaneal Loading for Each Percentage Area of Shoe Insole (kg/cm^{2}) | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

0% | 25% | 50% | 75% | 100% | |||

MH | 3.00 ± 0.34 | 2.67 ± 0.22 | 2.37 ± 0.45 | 2.06 ± 0.27 | 1.02 ± 0.10 | ||

Small | 2.14 ± 1.15 | LH | 2.17 ± 0.34 | 1.96 ± 0.27 | 1.61 ± 0.24 | 0.69 ± 0.15 | 0.27 ± 0.04 |

CH | 0.43 ± 0.05 | 0.30 ± 0.06 | 0.22 ± 0.02 | 0.17 ± 0.02 | 0.05 ± 0.00 | ||

MH | 3.11 ± 0.33 | 2.75 ± 0.21 | 2.52 ± 0.43 | 2.15 ± 0.26 | 1.18 ± 0.22 | ||

Medium | 2.29 ± 0.66 | LH | 2.28 ± 0.32 | 2.06 ± 0.26 | 1.70 ± 0.23 | 0.68 ± 0.11 | 0.29 ± 0.04 |

CH | 0.44 ± 0.04 | 0.32 ± 0.06 | 0.23 ± 0.02 | 0.18 ± 0.02 | 0.08 ± 0.01 | ||

MH | 3.35 ± 0.69 | 2.91 ± 0.45 | 2.84 ± 0.91 | 2.34 ± 0.56 | 1.13 ± 0.18 | ||

Large | 1.73 ± 0.13 | LH | 2.52 ± 0.68 | 2.24 ± 0.54 | 1.86 ± 0.48 | 0.71 ± 0.22 | 0.31 ± 0.08 |

CH | 0.47 ± 0.09 | 0.36 ± 0.12 | 0.24 ± 0.03 | 0.20 ± 0.04 | 0.09 ± 0.03 |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Wibowo, D.B.; Widodo, A.; Haryadi, G.D.; Caesarendra, W.; Harahap, R.
Effect of In-Shoe Foot Orthosis Contours on Heel Pain Due to Calcaneal Spurs. *Appl. Sci.* **2019**, *9*, 495.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app9030495

**AMA Style**

Wibowo DB, Widodo A, Haryadi GD, Caesarendra W, Harahap R.
Effect of In-Shoe Foot Orthosis Contours on Heel Pain Due to Calcaneal Spurs. *Applied Sciences*. 2019; 9(3):495.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app9030495

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Wibowo, Dwi Basuki, Achmad Widodo, Gunawan Dwi Haryadi, Wahyu Caesarendra, and Rudiansyah Harahap.
2019. "Effect of In-Shoe Foot Orthosis Contours on Heel Pain Due to Calcaneal Spurs" *Applied Sciences* 9, no. 3: 495.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app9030495