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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Large-Scale Grid Integration of Renewable Energy Resources with a Double Synchronous Controller

C-MAST, University of Beira Interior, 6201-001 Covilhã, Portugal
Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, 00076 Aalto, Finland
Vestas, 8200 Aarhus, Denmark
Aalborg University, 9220 Aalborg, Denmark
University of Beira Interior and Instituto de Telecomunicações, 6201-001 Covilhã, Portugal
Faculty of Engineering of the University of Porto and INESC TEC, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(24), 5548;
Received: 4 November 2019 / Revised: 8 December 2019 / Accepted: 10 December 2019 / Published: 16 December 2019
This paper provides virtual inertia and mechanical power-based double synchronous controller (DSC) for power converters based on the d- and q-components of the converter current to assure the stable operation of the grid with the penetration of large-scale renewable energy resources (RERs). The DSC is projected based on emulating both the inertia and mechanical power variables of the synchronous generators (SGs), and its performance is compared with a non-synchronous controller (NSC) that is without these emulations. The main contributions of the DSC are providing a large margin of stability for the power grid with a wide area of low and high values of virtual inertia, also improving significantly power grid stability (PGS) with changing properly the embedded virtual variables of inertia, mechanical power, and also mechanical power error. Also, decoupling features of the proposed DSC in which both d and q components are completely involved with the characteristics of SGs as well as the relationship between the interfaced converter and dynamic models of SGs are other important contributions of the DSC over the existing control methods. Embedding some coefficients for the proposed DSC to show its robustness against the unknown intrinsic property of parameters is another contribution in this paper. Moreover, several transfer functions are achieved and analyzed that confirm a more stable performance of the emulated controller in comparison with the NSC for power-sharing characteristics. Simulation results confirm the superiority of the proposed DSC in comparison with other existing control techniques, e.g., the NSC techniques. View Full-Text
Keywords: renewables; non-synchronous controllers; stability of the grid; virtual inertia renewables; non-synchronous controllers; stability of the grid; virtual inertia
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Mehrasa, M.; Pouresmaeil, E.; Soltani, H.; Blaabjerg, F.; Calado, M.R.A.; Catalão, J.P.S. Large-Scale Grid Integration of Renewable Energy Resources with a Double Synchronous Controller. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 5548.

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