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Evaluation of Loading Bay Restrictions for the Installation of Offshore Wind Farms Using a Combination of Mixed-Integer Linear Programming and Model Predictive Control

1
Faculty of Production Engineering, University of Bremen, Badgasteiner Str. 1, 28359 Bremen, Germany
2
BIBA-Bremer Institut für Produktion und Logistik GmbH at the University of Bremen, Hochschulring 20, 28359 Bremen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(23), 5030; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9235030
Received: 17 October 2019 / Revised: 15 November 2019 / Accepted: 16 November 2019 / Published: 21 November 2019
The installation of offshore wind farms poses particular challenges due to expensive resources and quickly changing weather conditions. Model-based decision-support systems are required to achieve an efficient installation. In the literature, there exist several models for scheduling offshore operations, which focus on vessels but neglect the influence of resource restrictions at the base port and uncertainties involved with weather predictions. This article proposes a Mixed-Integer Linear Programming model for the scheduling of installation activities, which handles several installation vessels as well as restrictions about available cargo bridges at the port. Additionally, the article explains how this model can be combined with a Model Predictive Control scheme to provide decision support for the scheduling of offshore installation operations. The article presents numerical studies of the effects induced by resource restrictions and of different parametrizations for this approach. Results show that even small planning windows, paired with comparably low computational times, achieve reasonably good results. Moreover, the results show that an increase in vessels comes at diminishing returns concerning the installation efficiency. Therefore, the results indicate that available good-weather windows primarily limit efficiency. View Full-Text
Keywords: offshore wind energy; installation planning; optimization; Model Predictive Control; Mixed-Integer Linear Programming; decision support; scheduling; resource restrictions offshore wind energy; installation planning; optimization; Model Predictive Control; Mixed-Integer Linear Programming; decision support; scheduling; resource restrictions
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Rippel, D.; Jathe, N.; Lütjen, M.; Freitag, M. Evaluation of Loading Bay Restrictions for the Installation of Offshore Wind Farms Using a Combination of Mixed-Integer Linear Programming and Model Predictive Control. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 5030.

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