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Open AccessArticle

Classification of Factors Affecting the Performance of Fully Grouted Rock Bolts with Empirical Classification Systems

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Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, ERICA Campus, Sangnok–gu, Ansan 15588, Korea
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Department of Mining Engineering, Baluchistan University of Information Technology Engineering and Management Sciences (BUITEMS), Quetta 87300, Pakistan
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Department of Geological Engineering, Baluchistan University of Information Technology Engineering and Management Sciences (BUITEMS), Quetta 87300, Pakistan
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Structural and Seismic Technology Group, KEPCO Research Institute, 105 Munji-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 34056, Korea
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Department of Urban Infrastructure Research, Seoul Institute of Technology, 8F 37 Maebongsan-ro, Mapo-gu, Seoul 03909, Korea
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(22), 4781; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9224781
Received: 10 September 2019 / Revised: 18 October 2019 / Accepted: 5 November 2019 / Published: 8 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Civil Engineering)
Empirical classification systems do not provide details of the factors that affect the performance of fully grouted rock bolts, as they are based on average values. Fully grouted rock-bolt patterns during tunnel-support design are a part of the composite support, and they are functions of rock-mass quality and tunnel span. Various fully grouted rock bolts are used in situ in different environments, along with other tunnel-support materials in static and dynamic environments during tunnel construction. The rock-bolt performances are evaluated through pull-out tests that follow ASTM standards. Several field pull-out tests were conducted on cement and resin grouted rock bolts. Under groundwater flow conditions, inflated steel tube rock bolts were tested and the results were compared with fully grouted rock bolts. Based on field experiments and previous studies, the factors that affect rock bolt performances are divided into five groups with respective sub-factors. Natural parameters cannot be controlled to ensure safety, economy, and stability in tunnels. The controllable factors, too, can be varied only within a practical range. In conclusion, the factors investigated here should be considered with the empirical support pattern of rock-mass classification systems for safe and economical design. View Full-Text
Keywords: empirical classification systems; tunnel support; fully grouted rock bolt; pull-out test; rock bolt performance empirical classification systems; tunnel support; fully grouted rock bolt; pull-out test; rock bolt performance
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Kim, H.; Rehman, H.; Ali, W.; Naji, A.M.; Kim, J.-J.; Kim, J.; Yoo, H. Classification of Factors Affecting the Performance of Fully Grouted Rock Bolts with Empirical Classification Systems. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 4781.

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