Reference Models for Digital Manufacturing Platforms
2. State of the Art
3. Reference Models Alignment
3.1. Reference Model for Industrie 4.0 (RAMI 4.0)
- Business layer: maps the business model, the overall process, and the rules that the system has to follow. The business model layer ensures the integrity of the functions in the value stream. It also provides the regulatory and legal framework conditions. The business layer orchestrates the services of the functional layer and receives events that inform of the progress of the business process.
- Functional layer: provides the runtime and modelling environment for the services that support the business layer. Remote access and horizontal integration take place in the functional layer, except for processes that are only relevant for lower layers (e.g., reading diagnosis data) or that are not relevant to permanent functional or horizontal integration (e.g., maintenance).
- Information layer: contains the data services that enable the ingestion, use, and maintenance of the data used, generated, or modified by the technical functionalities of the assets. This includes data persistence, provisioning, integration, and integrity. It receives events from the physical asset via lower level layers and applies the adequate processing and transformation to support the functional layer services.
- Communication layer: provides uniform communication and data formats that allow the access of information and provides interfaces to access the functions of an asset from other assets.
- Integration layer: represents the transition from the physical world to the information world. The integration layer contains a representation of the properties and process-related functions of an asset and reports events from the physical world. The integration layer includes asset documentation, software and firmware, or Human-Machine Interfaces (HMI).
- Asset layer: represents reality, i.e. the physical instance of the asset which is represented by all other layers.
3.1.2. Life Cycle and Value Stream
3.1.3. Hierarchy Levels
- Connected World: Describes the relationship between an asset or combination of assets and another asset or combination of assets at a different installation or company. This level is introduced in RAMI 4.0.
- Enterprise: Any business organization, initiative, venture, or undertaking with a defined mission. An enterprise is a collection of one or more sites. It is responsible for determining what products will be manufactured, at which sites and, in general, how they will be manufactured.
- Site: A site is a physical, geographical, or logical grouping determined by the enterprise. The main production capability usually identifies a site, and generally, they have well-defined manufacturing capabilities. Planning and scheduling normally involve sites. This level is not included in the RAMI 4.0 hierarchy level, but it is described here to better describe lower levels.
- Area: A physical, geographical, or logical grouping determined by the site. Areas generally have well-defined capabilities and capacities. Areas may contain one or more of the lower-level hierarchical level elements. As with sites, this level is omitted in the RAMI 4.0 hierarchical levels, but it is introduced to clarify the description of the levels below.
- Work Centres: Depending on the manufacturing system organizational model (discrete, batch, continuous), areas are organized in high level manufacturing elements (e.g., production line, storage zone, process cell). In RAMI 4.0, all of these higher-level elements are unified into the work centre concept to ensure a consistent application across different organizational models. Thus, work centres represent the highest level element that performs manufacturing functions and is regarded in production planning and scheduling. Work centres have well-defined manufacturing capabilities and throughput capacities. A work centre groups one or several work units. According to the standard, some examples are Bottling Line, or Assembly Line.
- Work Units or Station: Represent lower level elements that perform manufacturing functions and are regarded in production planning and scheduling. Some examples are work cells for discrete manufacturing processes, or process units for batch manufacturing processes. Work units have well-defined manufacturing capabilities and capacities and are composed of lower level equipment units that are not regarded in production planning and scheduling.
- Control Device: Represents the logical control of field devices.
- Field Device: Represents a device installed at the field level, which interacts physically with the manufacturing process and the products (e.g., a sensor).
- Product: Describes the product to be manufactured.
3.1.4. Administration Shell Specifications
- Concept: ISO 13584  Industrial automation systems and integration standard is the basis for the conceptual definition of the asset and its parts.
- Production: OPC UA Information models are used to exchange production operations data during the product instance Production and Usage phases.
- Mapping: Resource Description Framework (RDF) is used to map this information and enable the exchange of information using semantic technologies.
3.2. Smart Manufacturing Ecosystem
- Product Lifecycle Management (Product): Includes six phases for the product development lifecycle (design, process planning, production engineering, manufacturing, use and service, end-of-life, and recycling). This perspective is equivalent to the RAMI 4.0 Life Cycle and Value stream dimension.
- Production System Lifecycle (Production): Defines five phases in the lifecycle of production equipment: design, build, commission, operation and maintenance, and decommission and recycling. This perspective is also equivalent to the RAMI 4.0 Life Cycle & Value Chain, from the point of view of the manufacturing equipment provider.
- Business Cycle for Supply Chain Management (Business): This perspective regards the plan-source-make-deliver-return phases of the Supply-Chain Operations Reference model (SCOR). This perspective can also be mapped to the Life Cycle and Value stream of the RAMI 4.0 model in collaborative use cases.
Alignment to RAMI 4.0
- Manufacturing System Layer: Represents the physical system and can be mapped to the RAMI 4.0 asset layer.
- Model Ecosystem Layer: This layer contains the modelling environment and runtime for the digital models of the manufacturing layer. It can be mapped to the RAMI 4.0 Integration layer, Communication layer and to some extent to the Information layer.
- Transformation Layer: This layer collects the digital model data and applies model-transformations processes to adapt the data for the cloud services. These functionalities are located in the information layer of the RAMI 4.0 model.
- Cloud Layer: This layer includes third-party Big Data analytics services, implementing the functional and business functions of the RAMI 4.0 model.
3.3. Smart Manufacturing Standardization Reference Model
Alignment to RAMI 4.0
3.4. Industrial Internet Consortium Reference Model
3.4.1. Business Viewpoint
- Stakeholders: Actors in each organization with a major stake in the business and a strong influence in its direction. Stakeholders are the main drivers of the conception and development of the system.
- Vision: Future (to-be) state of the organization.
- Values: Rationale, narrative description of why the vision has merit for the stakeholders, as well as for the users of the resulting system.
- Key Objectives: Quantifiable high-level business and technical outcomes of the system results in the context of delivering the values.
- Fundamental Capabilities: High-level specification of the ability of the system to complete specific business tasks, characterized by quantifiable attributes to measure the success of the system.
3.4.2. Usage Viewpoint
- Task: Basic unit of work, such as the invocation of an operation, a transfer of data, or an action of a party, carried out by a party assuming a role.
- Functional Map: Map of the functions or functional components of the task.
- Implementation Map: Map of the implementation component the task relies on for its execution.
- Role: Set of capacities assumed by an entity to initiate, participate in the execution of, or consume the outcome of a task.
- Party: Agent (human or automated) that has interest and responsibility in the execution of a task. An agent executes a task assuming a role with the right capacities for the execution of the task.
- Activity: Specified coordination of tasks (and possibly other activities) required to use or operate the system, consisted of the following elements:
- Trigger: Conditions that initiate an activity, optionally associated with a role responsible for initiating or enabling the execution.
- Workflow: Organization of tasks (sequential, parallel, conditional, iterative).
- Effect: Difference in the state of the system after the successful completion of an activity.
- Constraints: Characteristics that must be preserved during the execution of the activity.
3.4.3. Functional Viewpoint
- Functional Domains: Decomposition of the distinct functionalities of a distributed industrial control system into physical domains:
- Control Domain: Functions performed by industrial control systems, mainly reading sensor data (sense) and control through actuators (actuation).
- Operations Domain: Functions for management, monitoring and optimization of control domain functionalities (prognostics, optimization, monitoring and diagnostics, deployment, and management).
- Information Domain: System modelling, data collection, persistence, transformation, and analysis.
- Application Domain: Application of logic and rules to realize specific business functionalities, User Interfaces (UIs), and Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) to expose functionalities for humans and external applications.
- Business Domain: Functions to enable end-to-end operations of the IIoT system, including those supporting business processes, also integrating with traditional specific functions. Examples include Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Customer Relationship Management (CRM), or Manufacturing Execution System (MES).
- Crosscutting Functions: Functionalities that enable the Industrial Internet that need to be provided to enable the functional domains:
- Connectivity: Functionalities enabling information sharing and collaborative manufacturing.
- Distributed Data Management: Coordination of data management tasks across system components.
- Industrial Analytics: Application of analytics on the data collected from industrial assets.
- System Characteristics: System properties emerging from the interactions between system parts:
- Trustworthiness: Coordination and integration of different functions implemented in the different system components to guarantee overall system safety, security, resilience, reliability, and privacy.
- Scalability: Functions to enable or facilitate the efficient deployment of large-scale instances of the system.
3.4.4. Implementation Viewpoint
3.4.5. Alignment to RAMI 4.0
4. Industrial Internet Integrated Reference Model
4.1. Business Viewpoint
4.2. Usage Viewpoint
4.3. Functional Viewpoint
4.4. Implementation Viewpoint
- Proximity: Physical proximity of the asset to the AAS.
- Asset-Based: AAS hosted in asset’s runtime environment.
- Edge/Fog Based: AAS hosted in a computing environment in the local IT infrastructure of the enterprise.
- Cloud Based: AAS hosted in cloud infrastructure.
- Distribution: Distribution of AAS data elements and services across different runtime environments.
- Centralized AAS: A 1 to 1 relationship between asset and AAS and unique entry point (e.g., URL) for the AAS.
- Distributed AAS with Loose Coupling: Information for an asset under the same AAS and multiple entry points for the AAS, distributed based on the different organizations that need access to the different data elements.
- Distributed AAS with Aggregating Node: An aggregating AAS provides a single access point to access all the information of the asset, collecting information from other lower level AAS distributed among collaborators.
- Virtualization: Virtualization of the runtime environment of the asset.
- Operating System: No virtualization.
- Hypervisor Deployment: Runtime environment in virtual machines managed by a hypervisor.
- Container: Container-based runtime environment (e.g., Docker).
Conflicts of Interest
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|FEATURES||Siemens MindSphere||PTC ThingWorx||GE Predix||ZDMP||vf-OS||CREMA|
|Key Objectives (ISO 22400)||✓||✓||✓||✓||✓||(✓)|
|IIRA USE CASE DESCRIPTIONS|
|RAMI 4.0 dimensions|
|Life Cycle & Value stream (IEC 6289)|
|Hierarchy Levels (IEC 62264)|
|AMS 300-5 layers|
|New Business Patterns||✓||✓||✓||✓||✓||✓|
|Manufacture & Logistics||✓||✓||✓||✓||✓||✓|
|Three tier architecture pattern||(✓)||(✓)||(✓)||(✓)||(✓)||(✓)|
|Four tier architecture pattern||✓||✓||✓||✓||✓||✓|
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Fraile, F.; Sanchis, R.; Poler, R.; Ortiz, A. Reference Models for Digital Manufacturing Platforms. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 4433. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9204433
Fraile F, Sanchis R, Poler R, Ortiz A. Reference Models for Digital Manufacturing Platforms. Applied Sciences. 2019; 9(20):4433. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9204433Chicago/Turabian Style
Fraile, Francisco, Raquel Sanchis, Raul Poler, and Angel Ortiz. 2019. "Reference Models for Digital Manufacturing Platforms" Applied Sciences 9, no. 20: 4433. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9204433