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Article

Characteristics and Processing of Hydrogen-Treated Copper Powders for EB-PBF Additive Manufacturing

1
Center for Additive Manufacturing and Logistics, Edward P. Fitts Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
2
RadiaBeam, Santa Monica, CA 90404, USA
3
SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Technology Innovation Directorate, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
4
Center for Additive Manufacturing and Logistics, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Consortium on the Properties of Additive Manufactured Copper, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(19), 3993; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9193993
Received: 16 August 2019 / Revised: 12 September 2019 / Accepted: 19 September 2019 / Published: 24 September 2019
The fabrication of high purity copper using additive manufacturing has proven difficult because of oxidation of the powder feedstock. Here, we present work on the hydrogen heat treatment of copper powders for electron beam powder bed fusion (EB-PBF), in order to enable the fabrication of high purity copper components for applications such as accelerator components and vacuum electronic devices. Copper powder with varying initial oxygen contents were hydrogen heat-treated and characterized for their chemistry, morphology, and microstructure. Higher initial oxygen content powders were found to not only reduce surface oxides, but also reduce oxides along the grain boundaries and form trapped H2O vapor inside the particles. The trapped H2O vapor was verified by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and residual gas analysis (RGA) while melting. The mechanism of the H2O vapor escaping the particles was determined by in-situ SEM heated stage experiments, where the particles were observed to crack along the grain boundaries. To determine the effect of the EB-PBF processing on the H2O vapor, the thermal simulation and the validation of single melt track width wafers were conducted along with melting single layer discs for chemistry analysis. A high speed video of the EB-PBF melting was performed in order to determine the effect of the trapped H2O vapor on the melt pool. Finally, solid samples were fabricated from hydrogen-treated copper powder, where the final oxygen content measured ~50 wt. ppm, with a minimal residue hydrogen content, indicating the complete removal of trapped H2O vapor from the solid parts. View Full-Text
Keywords: electron beam melting; copper; hydrogen treatment; high purity copper electron beam melting; copper; hydrogen treatment; high purity copper
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ledford, C.; Rock, C.; Carriere, P.; Frigola, P.; Gamzina, D.; Horn, T. Characteristics and Processing of Hydrogen-Treated Copper Powders for EB-PBF Additive Manufacturing. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 3993. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9193993

AMA Style

Ledford C, Rock C, Carriere P, Frigola P, Gamzina D, Horn T. Characteristics and Processing of Hydrogen-Treated Copper Powders for EB-PBF Additive Manufacturing. Applied Sciences. 2019; 9(19):3993. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9193993

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ledford, Christopher, Christopher Rock, Paul Carriere, Pedro Frigola, Diana Gamzina, and Timothy Horn. 2019. "Characteristics and Processing of Hydrogen-Treated Copper Powders for EB-PBF Additive Manufacturing" Applied Sciences 9, no. 19: 3993. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9193993

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