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Sublethal Injury Caused to Listeria monocytogenes by Natural Plant Extracts: Case Study on Grape Seed Extract and Garlic Extract

by Davy Verheyen 1,2,3, Maria Baka 1,2,3 and Jan F. M. Van Impe 1,2,3,*
1
BioTeC+, Chemical and Biochemical Process Technology and Control, Department of Chemical Engineering, KU Leuven, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
2
OPTEC, Optimization in Engineering Center of Excellence, KU Leuven, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
3
CPMF2, Flemish Cluster Predictive Microbiology in Foods—www.cpmf2.be, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(13), 2731; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9132731
Received: 6 June 2019 / Revised: 28 June 2019 / Accepted: 1 July 2019 / Published: 5 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antimicrobial Preservatives)
Natural antimicrobials, such as grape seed extract (GSE) and garlic extract (GE), are often used as (a part of) novel food preservation technologies, especially due to their antilisterial effect. However, little is known on the extent of sublethal injury (SI) these extracts cause to Listeria monocytogenes, possibly leading to overestimated efficacies for such novel technologies. The influence of both extracts on the sublethal injury of L. monocytogenes strain LMG23775 was investigated, also using propidium iodide staining to investigate the nature of the injury. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were 500 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/L and 7.5 μg allicin/mL for GSE and GE, respectively. These concentrations slowed down the growth of L. monocytogenes, while only causing a significant amount of SI for GSE. Pure extracts caused inactivation of the cells, with GSE being the most effective. Sublethal injury from pure GSE was mainly caused by membrane damage. In pure GE, a significant amount of SI, not caused by membrane damage, was also present, albeit less pronounced than in pure GSE. In conclusion, both extracts cause a significant amount of sublethal injury to L. monocytogenes, which is not taken into account in relevant studies investigating novel food preservation applications involving natural plant extracts. View Full-Text
Keywords: Listeria monocytogenes; natural plant extracts; grape seed extract; garlic extract; sublethal injury; membrane damage Listeria monocytogenes; natural plant extracts; grape seed extract; garlic extract; sublethal injury; membrane damage
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Verheyen, D.; Baka, M.; Van Impe, J.F.M. Sublethal Injury Caused to Listeria monocytogenes by Natural Plant Extracts: Case Study on Grape Seed Extract and Garlic Extract. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 2731.

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