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Open AccessArticle

Enhanced Pathological Element-Based Symbolic Nodal Analysis

National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, State University of Malang, Malang 65145, Indonesia
Department of Physics, University of Dalat, Dalat City 670000, Vietnam
Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 93;
Received: 16 November 2018 / Revised: 19 December 2018 / Accepted: 22 December 2018 / Published: 27 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physics and Mechanics of New Materials and Their Applications)
An improved symbolic analysis procedure to enhance the analytic efficiency of the reported symbolic nodal analysis is presented. Two techniques are adopted in the proposed method to reduce the order of the system of equations when performing symbolic analysis. The first one uses voltage signal sources directly to perform symbolic analysis without replacing them with their nullor equivalences. The second one uses the nullor, grounded mirror, and floating mirror elements to model the active devices that involve differential or multiple single-ended signals. Practical examples are given which demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed methods. View Full-Text
Keywords: pathological element; floating mirror; symbolic nodal analysis pathological element; floating mirror; symbolic nodal analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sujito; Tran, H.-D.; Lin, Y.-L.; Pham, C.C.; Wang, H.-Y.; Chang, S.-H. Enhanced Pathological Element-Based Symbolic Nodal Analysis. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 93.

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