Next Article in Journal
A Simplified Methodology to Evaluate the Design Specifications of Hydraulic Components
Previous Article in Journal
Towards Online Estimation of Human Joint Muscular Torque with a Lower Limb Exoskeleton Robot
Previous Article in Special Issue
Effect of Ionic Liquids on the Isobaric Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Behavior of Acetone-Chloroform
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 1611;

Removal of Ionic Liquids from Oil Sands Processing Solution by Ion-Exchange Resin

1,2,* and 1,2,3
School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China
National Engineering Research Center of Distillation Technology, Tianjin 300072, China
Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tianjin 300072, China
China Petroleum Pipeline Engineering Co. Ltd. Tianjin Branch, Tianjin 300000, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 July 2018 / Revised: 21 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids for Green Chemical Technology)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2717 KB, uploaded 11 September 2018]   |  


Ionic liquids (ILs) have been reported to be good process aids for enhanced bitumen recovery from oil sands. However, after the extraction, some ionic liquids are left in the residual solids or solutions. Herein, a washing–ion exchange combined method has been designed for the removal of two imidazolium-based ILs, ([Bmim][BF4] and [Emim][BF4]), from residual sands after ILs-enhanced solvent extraction of oil sands. This process was conducted as two steps: water washing of the residual solids to remove ILs into aqueous solution; adsorption and desorption of ILs from the solution by the sulfonic acid cation-exchange resin (Amberlite IR 120Na). Surface characterization showed that the hydrophilic ionic liquids could be completely removed from the solid surfaces by 3 times of water washing. The ionic liquids solution was treated by the ion-exchange resin. Results showed that more than 95% of [Bmim][BF4] and 90% of [Emim][BF4] could be adsorbed by the resins at 20 °C with contact time of 30 min. The effects of some typical coexisted chemicals and minerals, such as salinity, kaolinite (Al4[Si4O10](OH)8), and silica (SiO2), in the solution on the adsorption of ionic liquids have also been investigated. Results showed that both kaolinite and SiO2 exerted a slight effect on the uptake of [Bmim][BF4]. However, it was observed that increasing the ionic strength of the solution by adding salts would deteriorate the adsorption of [Bmim]+ on the resin. The adsorption behaviors of two ILs fit well with the Sips model, suggesting the heterogeneous adsorption of ionic liquids onto resin. The adsorption of ionic liquids onto Amberlite IR 120Na resin was found to be pseudo-second-order adsorption. The regeneration tests showed stable performance of ion-exchange resins over three adsorption–desorption cycles. View Full-Text
Keywords: ionic liquids; ion-exchange resin; adsorption; removal; residual sand; washing ionic liquids; ion-exchange resin; adsorption; removal; residual sand; washing

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Sui, H.; Zhou, J.; Ma, G.; Niu, Y.; Cheng, J.; He, L.; Li, X. Removal of Ionic Liquids from Oil Sands Processing Solution by Ion-Exchange Resin. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 1611.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Appl. Sci. EISSN 2076-3417 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top