Next Article in Journal
Planning Lung Radiotherapy Incorporating Motion Freeze PET/CT Imaging
Previous Article in Journal
Strain Control of the Tunable Physical Nature of a Newly Designed Quaternary Spintronic Heusler Compound ScFeRhP
Previous Article in Special Issue
3D Printed High Gain Complementary Dipole/Slot Antenna Array
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 1582;

Robust Design of 3D-Printed 6–18 GHz Double-Ridged TEM Horn Antenna

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746, Korea
Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-971, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 July 2018 / Revised: 23 August 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 7 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printed Antennas)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1575 KB, uploaded 19 September 2018]   |  


A robust design of a 3D-printed 6–18 GHz double-ridged TEM horn antenna is proposed in this paper. The designed TEM horn antenna has two parts: an adaptor and a horn aperture. The adaptor is realized using a double-ridged waveguide to extend the operating bandwidth of the dominant mode (TE10 mode). Meanwhile, the horn aperture section is implemented in an exponentially tapered configuration to match the impedance of the double-ridged waveguide with the intrinsic impedance. The performance of the initially designed antenna shows that the reflection coefficient and gain levels are less than −13 dB and greater than 5.5 dBi within the 6–18 GHz band, respectively. The initial design was well done, but the noise factors that may occur during the manufacturing process were not taken into account. To design an antenna considering these noise factors, the parameters of the initial design are optimized by a novel robust design method also proposed in this paper. The robustness of the antenna optimized by the proposed method is approximately 12.4% higher than that of the initial antenna. The validity of the proposed method was tested by fabricating the antenna. A prototype of the optimized antenna with the proposed robust design method is fabricated using a 3D printer with a stereolithographic apparatus attached, and the surface of the frame is covered by a nano-silver plating. The measured results of the fabricated antenna are in good agreement with the simulation results over the operating band. The measured −10 dB reflection coefficient bandwidth of the antenna can cover 6–18 GHz. In addition, the measured gain ranges from 4.42 to 10.75 dBi within the 6–18 GHz band. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3D-printed antenna; double-ridged waveguide; optimization algorithm; robust design; TEM horn antenna 3D-printed antenna; double-ridged waveguide; optimization algorithm; robust design; TEM horn antenna

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, S.; Yang, Y.; Lee, K.-Y.; Jung, K.-Y.; Hwang, K.C. Robust Design of 3D-Printed 6–18 GHz Double-Ridged TEM Horn Antenna. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 1582.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Appl. Sci. EISSN 2076-3417 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top