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Effective Modal Volume in Nanoscale Photonic and Plasmonic Near-Infrared Resonant Cavities

by Xi Li 1,†, Joseph S. T. Smalley 2,3,†, Zhitong Li 1 and Qing Gu 1,*
1
Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080, USA
2
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093; USA
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 1464; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8091464
Received: 29 July 2018 / Revised: 17 August 2018 / Accepted: 21 August 2018 / Published: 25 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Optics and Lasers)
We survey expressions of the effective modal volume, Veff, commonly used in the literature for nanoscale photonic and plasmonic cavities. We apply different expressions of Veff to several canonical cavities designed for nanoscale near-infrared light sources, including metallo-dielectric and coaxial geometries. We develop a metric for quantifying the robustness of different Veff expressions to the different cavities and materials studied. We conclude that no single expression for Veff is universally applicable. Several expressions yield nearly identical results for cavities with well-confined photonic-type modes. For cavities with poor confinement and a low quality factor, however, expressions using the proper normalization method need to be implemented to adequately describe the diverging behavior of their effective modal volume. The results serve as a practical guideline for mode analysis of nanoscale optical cavities, which show promise for future sensing, communication, and computing platforms. View Full-Text
Keywords: effective modal volume; nanocavities; laser resonators; near-infrared; theory and design effective modal volume; nanocavities; laser resonators; near-infrared; theory and design
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Li, X.; Smalley, J.S.T.; Li, Z.; Gu, Q. Effective Modal Volume in Nanoscale Photonic and Plasmonic Near-Infrared Resonant Cavities. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 1464.

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