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Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 1448; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8091448

Single-Class Data Descriptors for Mapping Panax notoginseng through P-Learning

School of Geodesy and Geomatics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China
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Received: 16 August 2018 / Revised: 20 August 2018 / Accepted: 21 August 2018 / Published: 24 August 2018
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Abstract

Machine learning-based remote-sensing techniques have been widely used for the production of specific land cover maps at a fine scale. P-learning is a collection of machine learning techniques for training the class descriptors on the positive samples only. Panax notoginseng is a rare medicinal plant, which also has been a highly regarded traditional Chinese medicine resource in China for hundreds of years. Until now, Panax notoginseng has scarcely been observed and monitored from space. Remote sensing of natural resources provides us new insights into the resource inventory of Chinese materia medica resources, particularly of Panax notoginseng. Generally, land-cover mapping involves focusing on a number of landscape classes. However, sometimes a subset or one of the classes will be the only part of interest. In term of this study, the Panax notoginseng field is the right unit class. Such a situation makes single-class data descriptors (SCDDs) especially significant for specific land-cover interpretation. In this paper, we delineated the application such that a stack of SCDDs were trained for remote-sensing mapping of Panax notoginseng fields through P-learning. We employed and compared SCDDs, i.e., the simple Gaussian target distribution, the robust Gaussian target distribution, the minimum covariance determinant Gaussian, the mixture of Gaussian, the auto-encoder neural network, the k-means clustering, the self-organizing map, the minimum spanning tree, the k-nearest neighbor, the incremental support vector data description, the Parzen density estimator, and the principal component analysis; as well as three ensemble classifiers, i.e., the mean, median, and voting combiners. Experiments demonstrate that most SCDDs could achieve promising classification performance. Furthermore, this work utilized a set of the elaborate samples manually collected at a pixel-level by experts, which was intended to be a benchmark dataset for the future work. The measuring performance of SCDDs gives us challenging insights to define the selection criteria and scoring proof for choosing a fine SCDD in mapping a specific landscape class. With the increment of remotely sensed satellite data of the study area, the spatial distribution of Panax notoginseng could be continuously derived in the local area on the basis of SCDDs. View Full-Text
Keywords: mapping; single-class data descriptors; materia medica resource; Panax notoginseng; one-class classifiers; geoherb mapping; single-class data descriptors; materia medica resource; Panax notoginseng; one-class classifiers; geoherb
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Deng, F.; Pu, S. Single-Class Data Descriptors for Mapping Panax notoginseng through P-Learning. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 1448.

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