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Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(8), 1384; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8081384

Electricity Generation in LCA of Electric Vehicles: A Review

1
Mat4En2—Materials for Energy and Environment, Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano, Italy
2
MOBI—Mobility, Logistics and Automotive Technology Research Centre, Department of Electric Engineering and Energy Technology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
3
Flanders Make, 3001 Heverlee, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 July 2018 / Revised: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 August 2018 / Published: 16 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV))
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Abstract

Life Cycle assessments (LCAs) on electric mobility are providing a plethora of diverging results. 44 articles, published from 2008 to 2018 have been investigated in this review, in order to find the extent and the reason behind this deviation. The first hurdle can be found in the goal definition, followed by the modelling choice, as both are generally incomplete and inconsistent. These gaps influence the choices made in the Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) stage, particularly in regards to the selection of the electricity mix. A statistical regression is made with results available in the literature. It emerges that, despite the wide-ranging scopes and the numerous variables present in the assessments, the electricity mix’s carbon intensity can explain 70% of the variability of the results. This encourages a shared framework to drive practitioners in the execution of the assessment and policy makers in the interpretation of the results. View Full-Text
Keywords: LCA; Well-to-Wheel; electric vehicle; plug-in hybrid; electricity mix; consequential; attributional; marginal; system modelling; energy system; meta-analysis LCA; Well-to-Wheel; electric vehicle; plug-in hybrid; electricity mix; consequential; attributional; marginal; system modelling; energy system; meta-analysis
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Marmiroli, B.; Messagie, M.; Dotelli, G.; Van Mierlo, J. Electricity Generation in LCA of Electric Vehicles: A Review. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 1384.

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