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Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(7), 1064; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8071064

Qualification of an Ultrasonic Instrument for Real-Time Monitoring of Size and Concentration of Nanoparticles during Liquid Phase Bottom-Up Synthesis

1
The Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Oude Waalsdorperweg 63, 2597 AK Den Haag, The Netherlands
2
The Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), High Tech Campus 25, 5656 AE Eindhoven, The Netherlands
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Delft University of Technology, Applied Physics, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ Delft, The Netherlands
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Hasselt University, Institute for Materials Research, Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium
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Zuyd University of Applied Sciences, Nieuw Eyckholt 300, Postbus 550, 6400 AN Heerlen, The Netherlands
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Independent Software Developer, 70140 Montagney, France
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Philips Innovation Labs, High Tech Campus 11, 5656 AE Eindhoven, The Netherlands
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Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P. O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 June 2018 / Revised: 25 June 2018 / Accepted: 26 June 2018 / Published: 29 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Nanotechnology and Applied Nanosciences)
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Abstract

Both in design and production of nanoparticles and nanocomposites it is of vital importance to have information about their size and concentration. During the formation of nanoparticles, real-time monitoring of particle size and concentration during bottom-up synthesis in liquids allows for a detailed study of nucleation and growth. This provides valuable insights into the formation of nanoparticles that can be used for process optimization and scale up. In the production of nanoparticles, real-time monitoring enables intervention to minimize the number of off-spec batches. In this paper we will qualify an ultrasound nanoparticle sizer (UNPS) as a real-time monitor for the growth of nanoparticles (or sub-micro particles) in the 100 nm–1 µm range. Nanoparticles affect the speed and attenuation of ultrasonic waves in the dispersion. The size of the change depends, amongst other things, on the size and concentration of the nanoparticles. This dependency is used in the UNPS method. The qualification of the UNPS was undertaken in two successful experiments. The first experiment consisted of static measurements on commercially available silica particles, and the second experiment was real-time monitoring of the size and concentration during the growth of silica nanoparticles in Stöber synthesis in a water–alcohol mixture starting from the molecular precursor tetraethyl orthosilicate. The results of the UNPS were verified by measurements of a dynamic light scattering device and a transmission electron microscope. View Full-Text
Keywords: ultrasound spectroscopy; nanoparticle size and concentration; sub-micro particles size and concentration; real-time analysis; colloids; nanoparticle synthesis; Stöber reaction ultrasound spectroscopy; nanoparticle size and concentration; sub-micro particles size and concentration; real-time analysis; colloids; nanoparticle synthesis; Stöber reaction
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van Groenestijn, G.J.; Meulendijks, N.; van Ee, R.; Volker, A.; van Neer, P.; Buskens, P.; Julien, C.; Verheijen, M. Qualification of an Ultrasonic Instrument for Real-Time Monitoring of Size and Concentration of Nanoparticles during Liquid Phase Bottom-Up Synthesis. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 1064.

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