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Open AccessArticle

A Simplified Free Vortex Wake Model of Wind Turbines for Axial Steady Conditions

College of Energy and Electrical Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 211100, China
Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Hi-Tech Research for Wind Turbine Design, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 866;
Received: 18 April 2018 / Revised: 20 May 2018 / Accepted: 22 May 2018 / Published: 25 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbine Aerodynamics)
A simplified free vortex wake (FVW) model called the vortex sheet and ring wake (VSRW) model was developed to rapidly calculate the aerodynamic performance of wind turbines under axial steady conditions. The wake in the simplified FVW model is comprised of the vortex sheets in the near wake and the vortex rings, which are used to replace the helical tip vortex filament in the far wake. The position of the vortex ring is obtained by the motion equation of its control point. Analytical formulas of the velocity induced by the vortex ring were introduced to reduce the computational time of the induced velocity calculation. In order to take into account both accuracy and calculation time of the VSRW model, the length of the near wake was cut off at a 120° wake age angle. The simplified FVW model was used to calculate the aerodynamic load of the blade and the wake flow characteristic. The results were compared with measurement results and the results from the full vortex sheet wake model and the tip vortex wake model. The computational speed of the simplified FVW model is at least an order of magnitude faster than other two conventional models. The error of the low-speed shaft torque obtained from the simplified FVW model is no more than 10% relative to the experiment at most of wind speeds. The normal and tangential force coefficients obtained from the three models agree well with each other and with the measurement results at the low wind speed. The comparison indicates that the simplified FVW model predicts the aerodynamic load accurately and greatly reduces the computational time. The axial induction factor field in the near wake agrees well with the other two FVW models and the radial expansion deformation of the wake can be captured. View Full-Text
Keywords: wind turbine; simplified free vortex wake; vortex ring; aerodynamics; axial steady condition wind turbine; simplified free vortex wake; vortex ring; aerodynamics; axial steady condition
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MDPI and ACS Style

Xu, B.; Wang, T.; Yuan, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Liu, H. A Simplified Free Vortex Wake Model of Wind Turbines for Axial Steady Conditions. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 866.

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