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Virtual Diagnostic Sensors Design for an Automated Guided Vehicle

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Applied Sciences Ravensburg-Weingarten, 88250 Weingarten, Germany
Institute of Control and Computation Engineering, University of Zielona Góra, 65-417 Zielona Góra, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Doggenriedstrasse, 88250 Weingarten, Germany.
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(5), 702;
Received: 13 March 2018 / Revised: 16 April 2018 / Accepted: 27 April 2018 / Published: 2 May 2018
PDF [2613 KB, uploaded 2 May 2018]


In recent years, Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) have been playing an increasingly important role in producing industry and infrastructure and will soon arrive to other areas of human life such as the transportation of goods and people. However, several challenges still aggravate the operation of AGVs, which limit the amount of implementation. One major challenge is the realization of reliable sensors that can capture the different aspects of the state of an AGV as well as its surroundings. One promising approach towards more reliable sensors is the supplementary application of virtual sensors, which are able to generate virtual measurements by using other sources of information such as actuator states and already existing sensors together with appropriate mathematical models. The focus of the research described in this paper is the design of virtual sensors determining forces and torques acting on an AGV. The proposed novel approach is using a quadratic boundedness approach, which makes it possible to include bounded disturbances acting on the AGV. One major advantage of the presented approach is that the use of complex tire models can be avoided. Information from acceleration and yaw rate sensors is processed in order to realize reliable virtual force and torque sensors. The resulting force and torque information can be used for several diagnostic purposes such as fault detection or fault prevention. The presented approach is explained and verified on the basis of an innovative design of an AGV. This innovative design addresses another major challenge for AGVs, which is the limited maneuvering possibilities of many AGV designs. The innovative design allows nearly unlimited maneuvering possibilities but requires reliable sensor data. The application of the approach in the AGV resulted in the insight that the generated estimates are consistent with the longitudinal forces and torques obtained by a proven reference model. View Full-Text
Keywords: fault diagnosis; observers; automated guided vehicles; input estimation; force balance fault diagnosis; observers; automated guided vehicles; input estimation; force balance

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Stetter, R.; Witczak, M.; Pazera, M. Virtual Diagnostic Sensors Design for an Automated Guided Vehicle. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 702.

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