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Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(3), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8030379

State-of-the-Art Mobile Intelligence: Enabling Robots to Move Like Humans by Estimating Mobility with Artificial Intelligence

1
School of Computer and Information Engineering, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing 100048, China
2
Beijing Key Laboratory of Big Data Technology for Food Safety, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing 100048, China
3
School of Automation, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
4
Baidu, Inc., Beijing 100085, China
5
Center of Quality Engineering AVIC China Aero-Polytechnology Establishment, Beijing 100028, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 December 2017 / Revised: 21 February 2018 / Accepted: 22 February 2018 / Published: 5 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Computer Science and Electrical Engineering)
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Abstract

Mobility is a significant robotic task. It is the most important function when robotics is applied to domains such as autonomous cars, home service robots, and autonomous underwater vehicles. Despite extensive research on this topic, robots still suffer from difficulties when moving in complex environments, especially in practical applications. Therefore, the ability to have enough intelligence while moving is a key issue for the success of robots. Researchers have proposed a variety of methods and algorithms, including navigation and tracking. To help readers swiftly understand the recent advances in methodology and algorithms for robot movement, we present this survey, which provides a detailed review of the existing methods of navigation and tracking. In particular, this survey features a relation-based architecture that enables readers to easily grasp the key points of mobile intelligence. We first outline the key problems in robot systems and point out the relationship among robotics, navigation, and tracking. We then illustrate navigation using different sensors and the fusion methods and detail the state estimation and tracking models for target maneuvering. Finally, we address several issues of deep learning as well as the mobile intelligence of robots as suggested future research topics. The contributions of this survey are threefold. First, we review the literature of navigation according to the applied sensors and fusion method. Second, we detail the models for target maneuvering and the existing tracking based on estimation, such as the Kalman filter and its series developed form, according to their model-construction mechanisms: linear, nonlinear, and non-Gaussian white noise. Third, we illustrate the artificial intelligence approach—especially deep learning methods—and discuss its combination with the estimation method. View Full-Text
Keywords: mobile intelligence; navigation; tracking; Kalman filter; estimation; tracking models; interacting multiple model; adaptive model; deep learning mobile intelligence; navigation; tracking; Kalman filter; estimation; tracking models; interacting multiple model; adaptive model; deep learning
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Jin, X.-B.; Su, T.-L.; Kong, J.-L.; Bai, Y.-T.; Miao, B.-B.; Dou, C. State-of-the-Art Mobile Intelligence: Enabling Robots to Move Like Humans by Estimating Mobility with Artificial Intelligence. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 379.

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