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Adaptive Beamformer Combined with Phase Coherence Weighting Applied to Ultrafast Ultrasound

High-Frame-Rate Doppler Ultrasound Using a Repeated Transmit Sequence

Beckman Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
Lizzi Center for Biomedical Engineering, Riverside Research Institute, New York, NY 10038, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 227;
Received: 5 December 2017 / Revised: 26 January 2018 / Accepted: 28 January 2018 / Published: 1 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging)
The maximum detectable velocity of high-frame-rate color flow Doppler ultrasound is limited by the imaging frame rate when using coherent compounding techniques. Traditionally, high quality ultrasonic images are produced at a high frame rate via coherent compounding of steered plane wave reconstructions. However, this compounding operation results in an effective downsampling of the slow-time signal, thereby artificially reducing the frame rate. To alleviate this effect, a new transmit sequence is introduced where each transmit angle is repeated in succession. This transmit sequence allows for direct comparison between low resolution, pre-compounded frames at a short time interval in ways that are resistent to sidelobe motion. Use of this transmit sequence increases the maximum detectable velocity by a scale factor of the transmit sequence length. The performance of this new transmit sequence was evaluated using a rotating cylindrical phantom and compared with traditional methods using a 15-MHz linear array transducer. Axial velocity estimates were recorded for a range of ± 300 mm/s and compared to the known ground truth. Using these new techniques, the root mean square error was reduced from over 400 mm/s to below 50 mm/s in the high-velocity regime compared to traditional techniques. The standard deviation of the velocity estimate in the same velocity range was reduced from 250 mm/s to 30 mm/s. This result demonstrates the viability of the repeated transmit sequence methods in detecting and quantifying high-velocity flow. View Full-Text
Keywords: color flow doppler; high-frequency ultrasound; plane-wave imaging; Nyquist velocity; multirate signal processing color flow doppler; high-frequency ultrasound; plane-wave imaging; Nyquist velocity; multirate signal processing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Podkowa, A.S.; Oelze, M.L.; Ketterling, J.A. High-Frame-Rate Doppler Ultrasound Using a Repeated Transmit Sequence. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 227.

AMA Style

Podkowa AS, Oelze ML, Ketterling JA. High-Frame-Rate Doppler Ultrasound Using a Repeated Transmit Sequence. Applied Sciences. 2018; 8(2):227.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Podkowa, Anthony S., Michael L. Oelze, and Jeffrey A. Ketterling. 2018. "High-Frame-Rate Doppler Ultrasound Using a Repeated Transmit Sequence" Applied Sciences 8, no. 2: 227.

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