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Open AccessArticle

Chemical Composition of Lipophilic Bark Extracts from Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea Cultivated in Portugal

1
CICECO, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
2
QOPNA, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both authors contributed equally to this work.
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(12), 2575; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122575
Received: 25 November 2018 / Revised: 6 December 2018 / Accepted: 8 December 2018 / Published: 11 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Chemistry)
The chemical composition of lipophilic bark extracts from Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea cultivated in Portugal was evaluated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Diterpenic resin acids were found to be the main components of these lipophilic extracts, ranging from 0.96 g kg−1 dw in P. pinea bark to 2.35 g kg−1 dw in P. pinaster bark. In particular, dehydroabietic acid (DHAA) is the major constituent of both P. pinea and P. pinaster lipophilic fractions, accounting for 0.45 g kg−1 dw and 0.95 g kg−1 dw, respectively. Interestingly, many oxidized compounds were identified in the studied lipophilic extracts, including DHAA-oxidized derivatives (7-oxo-DHAA, 7α/β-hydroxy-DHAA, and 15-hydroxy-DHAA, among others) and also terpin (an oxidized monoterpene). These compounds are not naturally occurring compounds, and their formation might occur by the exposure of the bark to light and oxygen from the air, and the action of micro-organisms. Some of these compounds have not been previously reported as lipophilic constituents of the bark of the referred pine species. Other constituents, such as aromatic compounds, fatty acids, fatty alcohols, and sterols, are also present in the studied extracts. These results can represent an opportunity to valorize P. pinaster and P. pinea by-products as a primary source of the bioactive resin acids that are integrated into the current uses of these species. View Full-Text
Keywords: bark; biorefinery; diterpenic resin acids; GC-MS analysis; Pinus pinaster; Pinus pinea bark; biorefinery; diterpenic resin acids; GC-MS analysis; Pinus pinaster; Pinus pinea
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sousa, J.L.C.; Ramos, P.A.B.; Freire, C.S.R.; Silva, A.M.S.; Silvestre, A.J.D. Chemical Composition of Lipophilic Bark Extracts from Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea Cultivated in Portugal. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 2575.

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