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Antibacterial Efficacy of Commercially Available Essential Oils Tested Against Drug-Resistant Gram-Positive Pathogens

1
Microbiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina, Greece
2
Clinical Microbiology Laboratory, University Hospital, 45110 Ioannina, Greece
3
Laboratory of Hygiene of Foods of Animal Origin—Veterinary Public Health, School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
4
Food Microbiology Group, Microbiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina, Greece
5
Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, School of Sciences, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(11), 2201; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8112201
Received: 10 October 2018 / Revised: 7 November 2018 / Accepted: 7 November 2018 / Published: 9 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Applied Biosciences and Bioengineering)
The potential antibacterial activity of basil (Ocimum basilicum), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla), origanum (Thymus capitatus), tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) essential oils, was investigated against 29 Gram-positive bacterial strains isolated from wastewater treatment plants, clinical samples (n = 25) and American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) reference strains (n = 4). Wild bacterial strains included methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (n = 16) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. (n = 9). The antimicrobial activity of the selected oils was studied using the broth macrodilution method. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values for S. aureus ranged from 0.06 to 0.5% (v/v) for origanum oil, 0.06 to 1% (v/v) for thyme oil, 0.12 to 1% (v/v) for tea tree oil, 0.25 to 4% (v/v) for basil oil and 2 to >4% (v/v) for chamomile oil. For enterococci the MIC values were significantly higher ranging from 0.25 to 1% (v/v), 0.5 to 2% (v/v), 1 to 4% (v/v), 4 to >4% (v/v) and >4% (v/v) for the above-mentioned oils, respectively. The main compounds of the tested essential oils were: estragole (Ocimum basilicum), bisabolol and trans-b-farnesene (Matricaria chamomilla), carvacrol and thymol (Thymus capitatus), terpinen-4-ol and p-cymene (Melaleuca alternifolia), thymol, linalool, and p-cymene (Thymus vulgaris). Origanum essential oil yielded the best antimicrobial results followed by thyme, tea tree, and basil oil, while chamomile oil exhibited weak antibacterial properties. View Full-Text
Keywords: essential oils; antimicrobial activity; MIC; multi-drug resistant; MRSA; VRE essential oils; antimicrobial activity; MIC; multi-drug resistant; MRSA; VRE
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sakkas, H.; Economou, V.; Gousia, P.; Bozidis, P.; Sakkas, V.A.; Petsios, S.; Mpekoulis, G.; Ilia, A.; Papadopoulou, C. Antibacterial Efficacy of Commercially Available Essential Oils Tested Against Drug-Resistant Gram-Positive Pathogens. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 2201. https://doi.org/10.3390/app8112201

AMA Style

Sakkas H, Economou V, Gousia P, Bozidis P, Sakkas VA, Petsios S, Mpekoulis G, Ilia A, Papadopoulou C. Antibacterial Efficacy of Commercially Available Essential Oils Tested Against Drug-Resistant Gram-Positive Pathogens. Applied Sciences. 2018; 8(11):2201. https://doi.org/10.3390/app8112201

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sakkas, Hercules; Economou, Vangelis; Gousia, Panagiota; Bozidis, Petros; Sakkas, Vasilios A.; Petsios, Stefanos; Mpekoulis, George; Ilia, Afrodite; Papadopoulou, Chrissanthy. 2018. "Antibacterial Efficacy of Commercially Available Essential Oils Tested Against Drug-Resistant Gram-Positive Pathogens" Appl. Sci. 8, no. 11: 2201. https://doi.org/10.3390/app8112201

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