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The Effects of Remineralization via Fluoride Versus Low-Level Laser IR810 and Fluoride Agents on the Mineralization and Microhardness of Bovine Dental Enamel

Advanced Studies and Research Center in Dentistry “Dr. Keisaburo Miyata” of School of Dentistry at Autonomous University State of Mexico, Toluca 50130, Mexico
Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Materials Science, Center for Research in Sustainable Chemistry (CIQS), Autonomous University State of Mexico-National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), Toluca 50120, Mexico
Faculty of Chemistry, Instrumental Analysis Laboratory, Autonomous University State of Mexico, Toluca 50120, Mexico
Academic Area of Dentistry of Health Sciences Institute at the Autonomous University of Hidalgo State, Pachuca 42060, Mexico
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 78;
Received: 22 October 2017 / Revised: 1 January 2018 / Accepted: 3 January 2018 / Published: 9 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Materials)
PDF [844 KB, uploaded 9 January 2018]


The objective of this study was to assess the mineralization and microhardness of bovine dental enamel surfaces treated with fluoride, tri-calcium phosphate, and infrared (IR) 810 laser irradiation. The study used 210 bovine incisors, which were divided into six groups (n = 35 in each): Group A: Untreated (control), Group B: Fluoride (Durapath-Colgate), Group C: Fluoride+Tri-calcium phosphate (Clin-Pro White-3 M), Group D: Laser IR 810 (Quantum), Group E: Fluoride+laser, and Group F: Fluoride+tri-calcium phosphate+laser). Mineralization was measured via UV-Vis spectroscopy for phosphorus and via atomic absorption spectroscopy for calcium upon demineralization and remineralization with proven agents. Microhardness (SMH) was measured after enamel remineralization. Mineral loss data showed differences between the groups before and after the mineralizing agents were placed (p < 0.05). Fluoride presented the highest remineralization tendency for both calcium and phosphate, with a Vickers microhardness of 329.8 HV0.1/11 (p < 0.05). It was observed that, if remineralization solution contained fewer minerals, the microhardness surface values were higher (r = −0.268 and −0.208; p < 0.05). This study shows that fluoride has a remineralizing effect compared with calcium triphosphate and laser IR810. This in vitro study imitated the application of different remineralizing agents and showed which one was the most efficient for treating non-cavitated injuries. This can prevent the progression of lesions in patients with white spot lesions. View Full-Text
Keywords: dental mineralization; enamel microhardness; low-level laser (LLL); fluoride dental mineralization; enamel microhardness; low-level laser (LLL); fluoride

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Lara-Carrillo, E.; Lovera-Rojas, N.; Morales-Luckie, R.A.; Robles-Bermeo, N.L.; García-Fabila, M.M.; De la Rosa-Santillana, R.; Medina-Solís, C.E. The Effects of Remineralization via Fluoride Versus Low-Level Laser IR810 and Fluoride Agents on the Mineralization and Microhardness of Bovine Dental Enamel. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 78.

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