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Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(11), 1143;

Polyvinyl Alcohol/Lithospermum Erythrorhizon Nanofibrous Membrane: Characterizations, In Vitro Drug Release, and Cell Viability

Innovation Platform of Intelligent and Energy-Saving Textiles, School of Textiles, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387, China
Graduate Institute of Biotechnology and Biomedical Engineering, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung 40601, Taiwan
Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Minjiang University, Fuzhou 350108, China
Laboratory of Fiber Application and Manufacturing, Department of Fiber and Composite Materials, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40768, Taiwan
Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Science, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
School of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
Department of Fashion Design, Asia University, Taichung 41354, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 October 2017 / Accepted: 2 November 2017 / Published: 6 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Chemistry)
PDF [15369 KB, uploaded 8 November 2017]


This study proposes an optimization process of the Lithospermum erythrorhizon (LE) extraction with a higher purity of shikonin (SK). The influence of extraction temperature on the concentration of SK is examined, and an in vitro cell viability assay is used to examine the optimal concentration of SK. Afterwards, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/LE solutions at ratios of 90/10, 80/20, and 70/30 w/w are electrospun into LE electrospun nanofibrous membranes (LENMs). The optimal manufacture parameters of LENMs are evaluated based on the test results of in vitro drug release test and cell viability assay. The optimal concentration occurs when the extraction temperature is −10 °C. The purity of the LE extract reaches 53.8% and the concentration of SK is 1.07 mg/mL. Moreover, the cell viability of nanofibrous membranes significantly increases to 136.8% when 0.7 μM SK is used. The diameter of nanofibers of LENM is decreased by 43.9% when the ratio of PVA solution to LE extract is 70/30 (w/w). 80/20 (w/w) LENM has the maximum amount of drug release of 79% for a continuous period of 48 h. In particular, 90/10 (w/w) LENM can create the maximum cell proliferation of 157.5% in a 24-h in vitro cell viability assay. This suggests that LENM has great potential to be used in facilitating tissue regeneration and wound healing. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrospinning; nanofiber; Lithospermum erythrorhizon (LE); shikonin (SK); drug release electrospinning; nanofiber; Lithospermum erythrorhizon (LE); shikonin (SK); drug release

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Lou, C.-W.; Wu, Z.-H.; Lee, M.-C.; Chen, Y.-S.; Lin, J.-H. Polyvinyl Alcohol/Lithospermum Erythrorhizon Nanofibrous Membrane: Characterizations, In Vitro Drug Release, and Cell Viability. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 1143.

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