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Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(10), 974;

Multivariate Analysis of Laser-Induced Tissue Ablation: Ex Vivo Liver Testing

School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 06974, Korea
Department of Biomedical Engineering and Center for Marine-Integrated Biomedical Technology (BK 21 Plus), Pukyong National University, Busan 48513, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 September 2017 / Revised: 13 September 2017 / Accepted: 20 September 2017 / Published: 22 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Optics and Lasers)
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A number of laser parameters are often regulated to enhance ablation efficiency during laser surgery. As one of clinical treatments, laser removal of benign prostate hyperplasia has been well accepted by surgical urologists. However, due to complex interactions of the surgical parameters, the procedure is still lengthy and dependent upon the surgeon’s skill and experience. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the feasibility of response surface method (RSM) to comprehend ablative interactions of multi-parameters and to identify the optimal ablation rate (AR). As a surrogate model in the feasibility study, bovine liver tissue was utilized for ex vivo ablation testing. Three laser parameters pertinent to laser prostatectomy were selected: power (P), treatment speed (TS), and beam spot (BS). As a three-level fractional factorial RSM, Box Behnken design (BBD) was employed to identify the range of each parameter for achieving the optimal AR. The results showed that regardless of TS, AR was linearly contingent on both P and BS due to high irradiance. TS of 6~7 mm/s induced the maximal AR when P of 180 W and BS of 0.4 mm2. The corresponding volumetric density energy yielded an ablation volume of 80 mm2, which was close to a transition to volumetric saturation. The BBD-based model showed a good agreement with the experimental data in terms of ablation volume. The proposed multivariate parametric analysis can be an efficient design method to identify the optimal conditions for laser therapeutics. Further investigations will be performed on prostatic tissue to validate the proposed approach and to explore various optimization processes. View Full-Text
Keywords: ablation rate; Box–Behnken design; volumetric energy density; response surface method ablation rate; Box–Behnken design; volumetric energy density; response surface method

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Park, S.; Kang, H.W. Multivariate Analysis of Laser-Induced Tissue Ablation: Ex Vivo Liver Testing. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 974.

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