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Open AccessArticle

Automated Cart with VIS/NIR Hyperspectral Reflectance and Fluorescence Imaging Capabilities

1
USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) Agricultural Research Service, Rm 21, Bldg 303, BARC-East, Powder Mill Rd., Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC), Baltimore, MD 21250, USA
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kuanglin Kevin Chao
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7010003
Received: 29 September 2016 / Revised: 18 November 2016 / Accepted: 30 November 2016 / Published: 22 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Hyperspectral Imaging for Food and Agriculture)
A system to take high-resolution Visible/Near Infra-Red (VIS/NIR) hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence images in outdoor fields using ambient lighting or a pulsed laser (355 nm), respectively, for illumination purposes was designed, built, and tested. Components of the system include a semi-autonomous cart, a gated-intensified camera, a spectral adapter, a frequency-triple Nd:YAG (Neodymium-doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet) laser, and optics to convert the Gaussian laser beam into a line-illumination source. The front wheels of the cart are independently powered by stepper motors that support stepping or continuous motion. When stepping, a spreadsheet is used to program parameters of image sets to be acquired at each step. For example, the spreadsheet can be used to set delays before the start of image acquisitions, acquisition times, and laser attenuation. One possible use of this functionality would be to establish acquisition parameters to facilitate the measurement of fluorescence decay-curve characteristics. The laser and camera are mounted on an aluminum plate that allows the optics to be calibrated in a laboratory setting and then moved to the cart. The system was validated by acquiring images of fluorescence responses of spinach leaves and dairy manure. View Full-Text
Keywords: automated cart; laser; imaging; hyperspectral imaging; fluorescence imaging; food safety; produce automated cart; laser; imaging; hyperspectral imaging; fluorescence imaging; food safety; produce
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Lefcourt, A.M.; Kistler, R.; Gadsden, S.A.; Kim, M.S. Automated Cart with VIS/NIR Hyperspectral Reflectance and Fluorescence Imaging Capabilities. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 3.

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