Next Article in Journal
Distinguishing Bovine Fecal Matter on Spinach Leaves Using Field Spectroscopy
Previous Article in Journal
Application of Response Surface Methodology for Optimisation of Simultaneous UHPLC-PDA Determination of Oleanolic and Ursolic Acids and Standardisation of Ericaceae Medicinal Plants
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(9), 234;

An Efficient Causal Group Communication Protocol for Free Scale Peer-to-Peer Networks

Laboratorio Nacional de Informática Avanzada (LANIA), Xalapa 91000, México
Computer Science Department, Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE), Puebla 72840, México
CONACYT—FIC, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo (UMSNH), Morelia 58040, México
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Christos Bouras
Received: 10 June 2016 / Revised: 9 August 2016 / Accepted: 15 August 2016 / Published: 30 August 2016
Full-Text   |   PDF [3214 KB, uploaded 31 August 2016]   |  


In peer-to-peer (P2P) overlay networks, a group of n (≥2) peer processes have to cooperate with each other. Each peer sends messages to every peer and receives messages from every peer in a group. In group communications, each message sent by a peer is required to be causally delivered to every peer. Most of the protocols designed to ensure causal message order are designed for networks with a plain architecture. These protocols can be adapted to use in free scale and hierarchical topologies; however, the amount of control information is O(n), where n is the number of peers in the system. Some protocols are designed for a free scale or hierarchical networks, but in general they force the whole system to accomplish the same order viewed by a super peer. In this paper, we present a protocol that is specifically designed to work with a free scale peer-to-peer network. By using the information about the network’s architecture and by representing message dependencies on a bit level, the proposed protocol ensures causal message ordering without enforcing super peers order. The designed protocol is simulated and compared with the Immediate Dependency Relation and the Dependency Sequences protocols to show its lower overhead. View Full-Text
Keywords: causal ordering; peer-to-peer; free scale topology causal ordering; peer-to-peer; free scale topology

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Evropeytsev, G.; López Domínguez, E.; Pomares Hernandez, S.E.; Perez Cruz, J.R. An Efficient Causal Group Communication Protocol for Free Scale Peer-to-Peer Networks. Appl. Sci. 2016, 6, 234.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Appl. Sci. EISSN 2076-3417 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top