# Modelling of Electric Bus Operation and Charging Process: Potential Contribution of Local Photovoltaic Production

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## Abstract

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## Featured Application

**The presented work assesses the impacts of electric bus charging on both the transportation network and utility grid. It is developed to help placing and sizing charging infrastructures while electrifying existing bus fleets.**

## Abstract

## 1. Introduction

- A bus consumption model that considers the influence of the battery capacity on the bus gross weight and thus on the bus consumption;
- Modelling of a bus network is presented based on General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS) data;
- A sequential simulation of the EB operation is performed in order to analyse the influence of the charging scenarios on the quality of transportation services (delay indicator);
- A comparison between bus energy demand and PV production in order to assess the potential of PV energy to reduce impacts of EB charging on the utility grid.

## 2. State of the Art of Scientific Literature

#### 2.1. Research Positioning

#### 2.2. Sizing of Charging Infrastructures

#### 2.3. Photovoltaic Integration for Bus Charging

#### 2.4. Discussion on the State of the Art

## 3. Modelling of the Bus Transportation Network

#### 3.1. Definitions

#### 3.2. Bus Consumption Modelling

#### 3.2.1. Consumption Model

#### 3.2.2. Speed Profile

#### 3.3. Modelling of Charging Process

#### 3.4. PV Production

#### 3.5. Bus Network Modelling

#### 3.5.1. GTFS Data

#### 3.5.2. Post-Treatment of GTFS Data

#### 3.6. Simulation of the Operation of Buses

## 4. Case Study

- Scenario 1: two chargers at the depot;
- Scenarios 2 and 2bis: two chargers at the depot and a charger at “Gare” and “Aramont” line terminals;
- Scenarios 3, 3bis, and 3ter: chargers at the terminals “Gare” and “Aramont”, and bus stops “Denielou” and “Matra Lecuru”.

## 5. Results

#### 5.1. Scenario 1—Charge at the Bus Depot

#### 5.2. Scenario 2—Charge at the Line Terminals

#### 5.3. Scenario 3—Charge at Several Bus Stops

## 6. Discussion

## 7. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 2.**Scheme of a bus line with three terminals (in red), intermediate bus stops (in green), two routes (in blue and purple), and the time schedule of one trip on the purple route.

**Figure 6.**Bus line ARC EXPRESS in Compiègne [57].

**Table 1.**Timetable of bus line “ARC Express” in Compiègne, France [34].

Service n° | 1 | 2 | 1 | 2 | 1 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 1 | 2 | 1 |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Trip n° | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 |

Bus stops | |||||||||||

Gare | 06:42 | 07:54 | 08:36 | 09:36 | 10:00 | 12:10 | 14:10 | 15:36 | 16:00 | 16:49 | 17:36 |

Couttolenc | 06:47 | 07:59 | 08:44 | 09:41 | 10:05 | 12:15 | 14:15 | 15:41 | 16:05 | 16:54 | 17:41 |

Rés. Univ. | 06:51 | 08:03 | 08:46 | 09:45 | 10:09 | 12:20 | 14:19 | 15:44 | 16:08 | 16:58 | 17:46 |

Denielou | 06:55 | 08:07 | 08:51 | 09:49 | 10:13 | 12:25 | 14:23 | 15:48 | 16:12 | 17:04 | 17:51 |

Mercières | 06:58 | 08:12 | 08:55 | 09:52 | 10:16 | 12:28 | 14:26 | 15:51 | 16:16 | 17:08 | 17:55 |

Parc Tertiaire | 07:00 | 08:15 | 08:58 | 09:55 | 10:19 | 12:30 | 14:29 | 15:53 | 16:19 | 17:11 | 17:58 |

Longues | 07:04 | 08:18 | 09:02 | 12:33 | 15:57 | 17:15 | 18:02 | ||||

Lecuru | 07:10 | 08:25 | 09:10 | 12:40 | 16:05 | 17:23 | 18:10 | ||||

Z.A. | 07:18 | 08:34 | 09:18 | 12:49 | 17:31 | 18:18 | |||||

Automne | 07:21 | 08:36 | 09:21 | 12:52 | 17:34 | 18:23 | |||||

Eglise | 07:25 | 08:40 | 09:25 | 12:56 | 16:33 | 17:38 | 18:25 | ||||

Aramont | 07:29 | 08:42 | 09:29 | 13:00 | 16:37 | 17:42 | 18:29 |

BYD-12 m Bus | PV Panel | ||
---|---|---|---|

Characteristics | Value | Characteristics | Value |

Length | 12.2 m | ${P}_{STC}$ | 345 W |

Width | 2.55 m | ${N}_{PV}$ | 290 |

Height | 3.30 m | ${g}_{STC}$ | $1000\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{W}/{\mathrm{m}}^{2}$ |

Gross vehicle weight | 19.5 t | $\gamma $ | $-0.29\%/\xb0\mathrm{C}$ |

Maximal passenger capacity | 85 | $NOCT$ | $41.5\xb0\mathrm{C}$ |

Battery capacity | 422 kWh | ${T}_{air-test}$ | $20\xb0\mathrm{C}$ |

Battery technology | LFP ^{1} | ${G}_{test}$ | $800\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{W}/{\mathrm{m}}^{2}$ |

$so{c}_{min}$ | 20% | ${\eta}_{syst}$ | 85% |

$so{c}_{max}$ | 90% | ||

${P}_{ventilation}$ | 0.5 kW | ||

${P}_{other}$ | 2 kW |

^{1}Lithium Iron Phosphate.

**Table 3.**Number of passengers boarding (B) and alighting (A) from the bus at each stop according to the length of the bus sequence.

Stop | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

B | 30 | 15 | 5 | 2 | 0 | 0 | ||||||

A | 0 | 0 | 10 | 10 | 15 | 17 | ||||||

B | 20 | 25 | 15 | 10 | 10 | 5 | 2 | 0 | ||||

A | 0 | 0 | 5 | 10 | 20 | 15 | 10 | 22 | ||||

B | 20 | 25 | 15 | 10 | 5 | 10 | 5 | 1 | 0 | |||

A | 0 | 1 | 5 | 6 | 14 | 15 | 9 | 20 | 21 | |||

B | 25 | 20 | 10 | 15 | 5 | 0 | 5 | 3 | 0 | 0 | ||

A | 0 | 1 | 3 | 10 | 2 | 15 | 7 | 18 | 12 | 15 | ||

B | 30 | 15 | 20 | 10 | 5 | 0 | 5 | 0 | 2 | 1 | 0 | 0 |

A | 0 | 2 | 0 | 15 | 10 | 5 | 10 | 5 | 3 | 15 | 10 | 13 |

Scenarios | 1 | 2 | 2bis | 3 | 3bis | 3ter |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Bus depot | 2 × 50 kW | 2 × 50 kW | 2 × 50 kW | - | - | - |

Line terminal | - | 150 kW | 300 kW | 150 kW | 450 kW | 600 kW |

Bus stops | - | - | - | 150 kW | 450 kW | 600 kW |

Battery capacity | 422 kWh | 422 kWh | 70 kWh | 70 kWh | 70 kWh | 70 kWh |

Scenarios | 1 | 2 | 2bis | 3 | 3bis | 3ter |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Bus charging | ||||||

Average consumption of the buses (kWh/km) | 1.01 | 1.01 | 0.91 | 0.92 | 0.91 | 0.91 |

Consumed energy of bus n°1 (kWh) | 155 | 155 | 140 | 140 | 140 | 140 |

Consumed energy of bus n°2 (kWh) | 218 | 218 | 197 | 197 | 197 | 197 |

Minimal SoC of bus n°1 (%) | 53.3 | 79.4 | 45.0 | 44.6 | 65.5 | 69.1 |

Minimal SoC of bus n°2 (%) | 38.4 | 73.3 | 27.9 | 22.2 | 63.5 | 66.2 |

Max. total charging power (kW) | 100 | 300 | 350 | 300 | 900 | 1200 |

Influence of PV production on 15 January | ||||||

PV energy production (kWh) | 108 | 108 | 108 | 108 | 108 | 108 |

PV energy used for direct charging (kWh) | 1 | 14 | 6 | 13 | 4 | 3 |

Influence of PV production on 17 July | ||||||

PV energy production (kWh) | 500 | 500 | 500 | 500 | 500 | 500 |

PV energy used for direct charging (kWh) | 17 | 81 | 42 | 69 | 24 | 18 |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Dougier, N.; Celik, B.; Chabi-Sika, S.-K.; Sechilariu, M.; Locment, F.; Emery, J.
Modelling of Electric Bus Operation and Charging Process: Potential Contribution of Local Photovoltaic Production. *Appl. Sci.* **2023**, *13*, 4372.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app13074372

**AMA Style**

Dougier N, Celik B, Chabi-Sika S-K, Sechilariu M, Locment F, Emery J.
Modelling of Electric Bus Operation and Charging Process: Potential Contribution of Local Photovoltaic Production. *Applied Sciences*. 2023; 13(7):4372.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app13074372

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Dougier, Nathanael, Berk Celik, Salim-Kinnou Chabi-Sika, Manuela Sechilariu, Fabrice Locment, and Justin Emery.
2023. "Modelling of Electric Bus Operation and Charging Process: Potential Contribution of Local Photovoltaic Production" *Applied Sciences* 13, no. 7: 4372.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app13074372