# 3D Facial Plastic Surgery Simulation: Based on the Structured Light

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## Abstract

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^{2}. The ratings of the simulation outcomes provided by panels of PS prove that the system is effective. The manipulated 3D faces are deemed more beautiful compared to the original faces respecting the beauty canons such as facial symmetry and the golden ratio. The proposed algorithm could generate realistic visual effects of PS simulation. It could thus assist the preoperative planning of facial PS.

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### 2.1. 3D Face Data Acquisition: Optical Measurement Strategy

#### 2.2. 3D Face Reconstruction

#### 2.3. Feature-Based 3D Facial Metamorphosis

#### 2.3.1. Extraction and Measurement of Facial Esthetic Key Points

#### 2.3.2. Mesh Deformation of 3D Facial Model Based on Finite Element

#### 2.4. Shaping Area Measurement

## 3. Results

#### 3.1. Results of 3D Facial Reconstruction and Measurement

^{2}. The software calculates the area of the nose as 3.69 mm

^{2}after selecting the overall area of the nose through the interactive arbitrary measuring tool. The area of key parts such as eyes, eyebrows, nose, and cheekbones of 10 groups of subjects is measured as the above method. Each part above is measured 10 times by one operator, and the average error is 0.65 mm

^{2}(Figure 2d). Obviously, for the measurement of the face area, because the shape of the face is irregular, the error value is larger than the geometric feature measurement. However, the measurement results can still provide a reference for microplastic surgery and improve the success rate of plastic surgery.

#### 3.2. Results of 3D Face Model Evaluation

#### 3.3. Results of Simulated Deformation

## 4. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 2.**The measurement of the human face using the system. (

**a**) geometric feature measurement. (

**b**) 3D area measurement. (

**c**) average error of geometric measurement. (

**d**) average error of area measurement.

**Figure 3.**3D evaluation results of key parts of face. (

**a**) follow the results obtained "three courtyards", “five eyes”, eyebrows and eyes, and nose. (

**b**) comparison of evaluation results.

Devices | Resolution | Precision (mm) | Working Distance (m) | Scanning Time (s) | Size (mm) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Kinect v2 | 512 × 424 | 2~10 | 0.5–4.5 | >60 s | 250 × 66 × 67 |

RealSense D435 | 1280 × 720 | 5 | 0.8–3 | 30 s | 90 × 20 × 23 |

Orbber persee | 640 × 480 | - | 0.6–8 | - | 172 × 63 × 56 |

Our system | 1280 × 800 | 0.4 | 0.3–0.6 | 4 s | 101 × 26 × 13 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Rao, Z.; Sun, S.; Li, M.; Ji, X.; Huang, J.
3D Facial Plastic Surgery Simulation: Based on the Structured Light. *Appl. Sci.* **2023**, *13*, 659.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app13010659

**AMA Style**

Rao Z, Sun S, Li M, Ji X, Huang J.
3D Facial Plastic Surgery Simulation: Based on the Structured Light. *Applied Sciences*. 2023; 13(1):659.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app13010659

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Rao, Zhi, Shuo Sun, Mingye Li, Xiaoqiang Ji, and Jipeng Huang.
2023. "3D Facial Plastic Surgery Simulation: Based on the Structured Light" *Applied Sciences* 13, no. 1: 659.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app13010659