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Article

Bacterial Hosts and Genetic Characteristics of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Wastewater Treatment Plants of Xinjiang (China) Revealed by Metagenomics

1
College of Ecology and Environment, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830017, China
2
College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Siyu Zhang, Yi Zhao and Ramaraj Boopathy
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(6), 3100; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12063100
Received: 6 December 2021 / Revised: 10 March 2022 / Accepted: 15 March 2022 / Published: 18 March 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiology and Antibiotic Resistance in the Environment)
Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) pose a widespread concern for human health and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are considered to be a major source of ARG transmission. In this paper, the potential hosts and genetic characteristics of ARGs in the influent, activated sludge and effluent of WWTPs in Xinjiang were studied by metagenomics. Bacitracin resistance gene (bacA), beta-lactamase gene (class A beta-lactamase), multidrug resistance genes (mexD, qacEdelta1), and sulfonamide resistance genes (sul1, and sul2) are persistent antibiotic resistance genes (PARGs). The potential hosts of ARGs were mainly pathogens, with Escherichia coli (12.9%), Acinetobacter johnsonii (8.94%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (5.30%) accounting for the highest proportions. Chromosomal sequences and plasmid sequences accounted for 42.0% and 22.6% of ARG-carrying contigs (ACCs) in the influent, respectively. Meanwhile, the effluent contained 58.3% of ACCs in plasmids and 8.30% in chromosomes. Bacitracin resistance genes and multidrug resistance genes were mainly carried by chromosomes, while resistance genes for macrolide–lincosamide–streptogramin (MLS), vancomycin, sulfonamide, beta-lactam, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and aminoglycoside were mainly carried by plasmids. ICEPae690-sul1-qacEdelta1 and ICEPmiChn3-sul2 were stable coexistence structures and heighten the transfer potential of ARGs in the environment. This study provided a clearer picture of host bacterial sources and genetic context of ARGs in the environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: persistent antibiotic resistance gene; mobile genetic elements; ARG host; genetic background; metagenomic assembly persistent antibiotic resistance gene; mobile genetic elements; ARG host; genetic background; metagenomic assembly
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, Z.; Yao, J.; Ma, H.; Rukeya, A.; Liang, Z.; Du, W.; Chen, Y. Bacterial Hosts and Genetic Characteristics of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Wastewater Treatment Plants of Xinjiang (China) Revealed by Metagenomics. Appl. Sci. 2022, 12, 3100. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12063100

AMA Style

Liu Z, Yao J, Ma H, Rukeya A, Liang Z, Du W, Chen Y. Bacterial Hosts and Genetic Characteristics of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Wastewater Treatment Plants of Xinjiang (China) Revealed by Metagenomics. Applied Sciences. 2022; 12(6):3100. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12063100

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liu, Ziteng, Junqin Yao, Huiying Ma, Abudukelimu Rukeya, Zenghui Liang, Wenyan Du, and Yinguang Chen. 2022. "Bacterial Hosts and Genetic Characteristics of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Wastewater Treatment Plants of Xinjiang (China) Revealed by Metagenomics" Applied Sciences 12, no. 6: 3100. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12063100

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