# Study on the Non-Steady-State Wear Characteristics and Test of the Flow Passage Components of Deep-Sea Mining Pumps

^{1}

^{2}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Methods: Modeling and Numerical Calculation Method

#### 2.1. Three-Dimensional Modeling

_{d}= 420 m

^{3}/h, a single-stage head H

_{d}= 45 m, a rated efficiency η

_{d}= 52%, and a rated rotational speed n = 1450 r/min. The structure of the deep-sea mining pump is composed of hydraulic components such as the impeller, guide vane, suction connection, water outlet connection, water guide jacket and water inlet, motor motive components, and mechanical components (such as couplings and seals). The slurry flows in from the suction connection section of the conveyor electric pump, then passes through the water guide jacket, the water inlet section, and the impeller guide vanes of the pump at all levels, before flowing out from the water outlet guide casing. The main through-passage components of the mining pump are shown in Figure 1.

#### 2.2. Numerical Calculation Strategy

#### 2.2.1. Numerical Calculation Method

^{−4}in the numerical simulation.

^{2}), $\rho $ is the fluid density (kg/m

^{3}), ${\rho}_{p}$ is the particle density (kg/m

^{3}), ${d}_{p}$ is the particle diameter (mm), and ${g}_{x}$ is the acceleration of gravity in the x-axis direction (m/s

^{2}).

#### 2.2.2. Boundary Conditions

^{−4}, and the calculation results were determined to have converged when the average flow rate and pressure at the pump inlet and outlet between successive calculation steps exhibit a deviation of less than 0.001%.

#### 2.3. Selection of the Wear Model

_{erosion}: erosion rate;

^{2};

## 3. Results: Analysis of the Non-Steady-State Wear

_{d}, 1.0 Q

_{d}, and 1.33 Q

_{d}, respectively. The impeller had a rotational speed of 1450 rpm, the particles had a diameter of 6 mm, and the volume fraction C

_{v}of the solid phase was 7.5%.

#### 3.1. Low Flow Rate Condition

_{d}), the evolution process of the surface wear rate of the impellers and guide vanes was analyzed during one third of a rotation cycle (120°) of the impellers.

_{d}).

#### 3.2. Design Flow Rate Conditions

_{d}), the evolution process of the surface wear rate of the impellers and guide vanes was analyzed during one third of a rotation cycle (120°) of the impellers. Figure 8, Figure 9, Figure 10 and Figure 11 show the evolution process of the surface wear rate of the first- and second-stage impellers, as well as that of the first- and second-stage guide vanes during one third of the rotation cycle (120°) of the impeller with the design flow rate (1.0 Q

_{d}).

#### 3.3. High Flow Rate Condition

_{d}), the evolution process of the surface wear rate of the impellers and guide vanes was analyzed during one third of a rotation cycle (120°) of the impellers. Figure 12, Figure 13, Figure 14 and Figure 15 show the evolution process of the surface wear rate of the first- and second-stage impellers, as well as that of the first- and second-stage guide vanes during one third of a rotation cycle (120°) of the impeller with a high flow rate (1.33 Q

_{d}).

## 4. Test: Wear Test Verification

#### 4.1. Testing Principle

^{3}/h). Before the test, the same thickness of water-based paint was applied to the impeller and guide vane runners. The test was carried out after the paint had completely dried. The state change of the wear area was determined in order to observe the wear of the solid particles on the flow passage components, and then the numerical calculation results under the same boundary conditions were compared. The comparison diagrams of the impeller and guide vane before and after applying the water-based paint are shown in Figure 17 and Figure 18, respectively.

#### 4.2. Comparative Analysis of the Results

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

- Liu, H.X.; Yang, W.X.; Kang, R. A correlation for sand erosion prediction in annular flow considering the effect of liquid dynamic viscosity. Wear
**2018**, 404–405, 1–11. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Xu, H.; Zhou, Y.; Yang, F. Analysis on influences of feeding flow rate on flow characteristics in deep-sea ore hydraulic transport equipment. J. Drain. Irrig. Mach. Eng.
**2019**, 37, 618–624. [Google Scholar] - Liu, S.-J.; Wen, H.; Zou, W.-S.; Hu, X.-Z.; Dong, Z. Deep-Sea Mining Pump Wear Prediction Using Numerical Two-Phase Flow Simulation. In Proceedings of the 2019 International Conference on Intelligent Transportation, Big Data & Smart City (ICITBS), Changsha, China, 12–13 January 2019; pp. 630–636. [Google Scholar]
- Peng, G.; Chen, Q.; Bai, L.; Hu, Z.; Zhou, L.; Huang, X. Wear mechanism investigation in a centrifugal slurry pump impeller by numerical simulation and experiments. Eng. Fail. Anal.
**2021**, 128, 105637. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Noon, A.A.; Kim, M.H. Erosion wear on centrifugal pump casing due to slurry flow. Wear
**2016**, 364–365, 103–111. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Tarodiya, R.; Gandhi, B.K. Hydraulic performance and erosive wear of centrifugal slurry pumps—A review. Powder Technol.
**2017**, 305, 27–38. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Peng, G.; Fan, F.; Zhou, L.; Huang, X.; Ma, J. Optimal hydraulic design to minimize erosive wear in a centrifugal slurry pump impeller. Eng. Fail. Anal.
**2020**, 120, 105105. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Song, X.J.; Yao, R.; Shen, Y.B.; Bi, H.; Zhang, Y.; Du, L.; Wang, Z. Numerical Prediction of Erosion Based on the Solid-Liquid Two-Phase Flow in a Double-Suction Centrifugal Pump. J. Mar. Sci. Eng.
**2021**, 9, 836. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Liu, Z.G.; Wan, S.; Nguyen, V.B.; Zhang, Y.-W. A numerical study on the effect of particle shape on the erosion of ductile materials. Wear
**2014**, 313, 135–142. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Takaffoli, M.; Papini, M. Numerical simulation of solid particle impacts on Al6061-T6 Part II: Materials removal mechanisms for impact of multiple angular particles. Wear
**2012**, 296, 648–655. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Grant, G.; Tabakoff, W. Erosion Prediction in Turbomachinery Resulting from Environmental Solid Particles. J. Aircr.
**2012**, 12, 471–478. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Arabnejad, H.; Mansouri, A.; Shirazi, S.; McLaury, B.S. Development of mechanistic erosion equation for solid particles. Wear
**2015**, 332-333, 1044–1050. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Huang, X.; Yang, S.; Liu, Z.; Yang, W.; Li, Y. Numerical simulation of prediction in centrifugal pump based on particle track model. Trans. Chin. Soc. Agric. Mach.
**2016**, 47, 35–41. [Google Scholar] - Nguyen, V.; Nguyen, Q.B.; Zhang, Y.-W.; Lim, C.Y.H.; Khoo, B.C. Effect of particle size on erosion characteristics. Wear
**2016**, 348, 126–137. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Peng, W.; Cao, X. Numerical simulation of solid particle erosion in pipe bends for liquid–solid flow. Powder Technol.
**2016**, 294, 266–279. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Wang, R.; Guan, Y.; Jin, X.; Tang, Z.; Zhu, Z.; Su, X. Impact of Particle Sizes on Flow Characteristics of Slurry Pump for Deep-Sea Mining. Shock. Vib.
**2021**, 2021, 6684944. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Wang, Z.; Qian, Z. Effects of concentration and size of silt particles on the performance of a double-suction centrifugal pump. Energy
**2017**, 123, 36–46. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Liao, J.; Lai, X.D.; Zhang, W.M. Numerical analysis of internal flow field of centrifugal pump based on solid-liquid two-phase flow. J. Eng. Therm. Energy Power
**2017**, 32, 95–99+139–140. [Google Scholar] - Shen, Z.; Chu, W.; Li, X.J.; Dong, W. Sediment erosion in the impeller of a double-suction centrifugal pump—A case study of the Jingtai Yellow River Irrigation Project, China. Wear
**2019**, 422–423, 269–279. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Serrano, R.O.P.; Santos, L.P.; Viana, E.M.F.; Pinto, M.A.; Martinez, C.B. Case study: Effects of sediment concentration on the wear of fluvial water pump impellers on Brazil’s Acre River. Wear
**2018**, 408–409, 131–137. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - López, A.; Stickland, M.; Dempster, W. Modeling erosion in a centrifugal pump in an Eulerian-Lagrangian frame using OpenFOAM
^{®}. Open Eng.**2015**, 5, 105–124. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Li, Y.W.; Liu, S.J.; Hu, X.Z. Rotating speed’s influence on performance of deep-sea lifting motor pump based on DEM-CFD. Mar. Georesour. Geotecnol.
**2019**, 37, 979–988. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Zhou, L.; Han, C.; Bai, L.; Li, W.; El-Emam, M.A.; Shi, W. CFD-DEM bidirectional coupling simulation and experimental investigation of particle ejections and energy conversion in a spouted bed. Energy
**2020**, 211, 118672. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Huang, R.F.; Wang, Y.W.; Du, T.Z.; Luo, X.; Zhang, W.; Dai, Y. Mechanism analyses of the unsteady vortical cavitation behaviors for a waterjet pump in a non-uniform inflow. Ocean Eng.
**2021**, 233, 108798. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Su, X.H.; Huang, S.; Zhang, X.; Yang, S. Numerical research on unsteady flow rate characteristics of pump as turbine. Renew. Energy
**2016**, 94, 488–495. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Zhang, N.; Liu, X.K.; Gao, B.; Xia, B. DDES analysis of the unsteady wake flow and its evolution of a centrifugal pump. Renew. Energy
**2019**, 141, 570–582. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Zhang, N.; Liu, X.; Gao, B.; Wang, X.; Xia, B. Effects of modifying the blade trailing edge profile on unsteady pressure pulsations and flow structures in a centrifugal pump. Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow
**2019**, 75, 227–238. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Zhang, N.; Jiang, J.X.; Gao, B.; Liu, X. DDES analysis of unsteady flow evolution and pressure pulsation at off-design condition of a centrifugal pump. Renew. Energy
**2020**, 153, 193–204. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Liu, S.J.; Liu, C.; Dai, Y. Status and progress on researches and developmengts of deep ocean mining equipmengts. J. Mech. Eng.
**2014**, 50, 8–18. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Kang, Y.J.; Liu, S.J.; Zou, W.S.; Zhao, H.; Hu, X. Design and analysis of an innovative deep-sea lifting motor pump. Appl. Ocean Res.
**2018**, 82, 22–31. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Wen, H.; Liu, S.-J.; Zou, W.-S.; Hu, X.-Z.; Dong, Z. Effects of Particle Diameter on Erosion Wear Characteristic of Deep-Sea Mining Pump. In Proceedings of the 2019 International Conference on Intelligent Transportation, Big Data & Smart City (ICITBS), Changsha, China, 12–13 January 2019; pp. 507–512. [Google Scholar]
- Zhao, R.-J.; Zhao, Y.-L.; Zhang, D.-S.; Li, Y.; Geng, L.-L. Numerical Investigation of the Characteristics of Erosion in a Centrifugal Pump for Transporting Dilute Particle-Laden Flows. J. Mar. Sci. Eng.
**2021**, 9, 961. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

**Figure 4.**Surface wear rate evolution of the first-stage impeller. (

**a**) 0°, (

**b**) 24°, (

**c**) 48°, (

**d**) 72°, (

**e**) 96°, (

**f**) 120°.

**Figure 5.**Surface wear rate evolution of the second-stage impeller. (

**a**) 0°, (

**b**) 24°, (

**c**) 48°, (

**d**) 72°, (

**e**) 96°, (

**f**) 120°.

**Figure 6.**Surface wear rate evolution of the first-stage guide vane. (

**a**) 0°, (

**b**) 24°, (

**c**) 48°, (

**d**) 72°, (

**e**) 96°, (

**f**) 120°.

**Figure 7.**Surface wear rate evolution of the second-stage guide vane. (

**a**) 0°, (

**b**) 24°, (

**c**) 48°, (

**d**) 72°, (

**e**) 96°, (

**f**) 120°.

**Figure 8.**Surface wear rate evolution of the first-stage impeller. (

**a**) 0°, (

**b**) 24°, (

**c**) 48°, (

**d**) 72°, (

**e**) 96°, (

**f**) 120°.

**Figure 9.**Surface wear rate evolution of the second-stage impeller. (

**a**) 0°, (

**b**) 24°, (

**c**) 48°, (

**d**) 72°, (

**e**) 96°, (

**f**) 120°.

**Figure 10.**Surface wear rate evolution of the first-stage guide vane. (

**a**) 0°, (

**b**) 24°, (

**c**) 48°, (

**d**) 72°, (

**e**) 96°, (

**f**) 120°.

**Figure 11.**Surface wear rate evolution of the second-stage guide vane. (

**a**) 0°, (

**b**) 24°, (

**c**) 48°, (

**d**) 72°, (

**e**) 96°, (

**f**) 120°.

**Figure 12.**Surface wear rate evolution of the first-stage impeller. (

**a**) 0°, (

**b**) 24°, (

**c**) 48°, (

**d**) 72°, (

**e**) 96°, (

**f**) 120°.

**Figure 13.**Surface wear rate evolution of the second-stage impeller. (

**a**) 0°, (

**b**) 24°, (

**c**) 48°, (

**d**) 72°, (

**e**) 96°, (

**f**) 120°.

**Figure 14.**Surface wear rate evolution of the first-stage guide vane. (

**a**) 0°, (

**b**) 24°, (

**c**) 48°, (

**d**) 72°, (

**e**) 96°, (

**f**) 120°.

**Figure 15.**Surface wear rate evolution of the second-stage guide vane. (

**a**) 0°, (

**b**) 24°, (

**c**) 48°, (

**d**) 72°, (

**e**) 96°, (

**f**) 120°.

**Figure 17.**Comparison diagram of the impeller runner before and after applying water-based paint. (

**a**) Before painting, (

**b**) After painting.

**Figure 18.**Comparison diagram of the guide vane runner before and after applying water-based paint. (

**a**) Before painting, (

**b**) After painting.

**Figure 19.**Test system diagram. 1—Test pump (including motor); 2—Test pump support mechanism; 3—Flow meter; 4—Outlet pipe; 5—Return pipe; 6—Regulating valve; 7—Return pipe support member; 8—Cable terminal; 9—Cable fixing component; 10—Water tank; 11—Anti-submersible pump swing component.

**Figure 21.**Comparison of numerical calculation results and test results of the wear area. (

**a**) Impeller inlet, (

**b**) First-stage guide vane, (

**c**) Secondary guide vane.

b | c | x | y | w | z |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

−13.3 | 7.85 | 1.09 | 0.125 | 1 | 1 |

Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. |

© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Hong, S.; Hu, X.
Study on the Non-Steady-State Wear Characteristics and Test of the Flow Passage Components of Deep-Sea Mining Pumps. *Appl. Sci.* **2022**, *12*, 782.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app12020782

**AMA Style**

Hong S, Hu X.
Study on the Non-Steady-State Wear Characteristics and Test of the Flow Passage Components of Deep-Sea Mining Pumps. *Applied Sciences*. 2022; 12(2):782.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app12020782

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Hong, Shunjun, and Xiaozhou Hu.
2022. "Study on the Non-Steady-State Wear Characteristics and Test of the Flow Passage Components of Deep-Sea Mining Pumps" *Applied Sciences* 12, no. 2: 782.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app12020782