# Noise Identification for an Automotive Wheel Bearing

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Noise and Vibration of Assembled Wheel Bearing

_{d}denotes the ball diameter, P

_{d}denotes the pitch diameter, and θ denotes the contact angle.

^{2}and 0.19 m/s

^{2}, respectively. The vibration of the dust shield was approximately four times higher than that of the outer ring.

## 3. Noise Identification

## 4. Excitation Source for Noise

_{FTF}), ball pass frequency outer ring (f

_{BPFO}), ball pass frequency inner ring (f

_{BPFI}), and ball spin frequency (f

_{BSF}), which are obtained by the following equations [22,23]:

_{d}is the ball diameter, P

_{d}is the pitch diameter, and θ is the contact angle. The characteristic frequencies are obtained by substituting the design specifications in Table 1 into Equations (1)–(4), and the results are listed in Table 3. As shown in Table 3, f

_{FTF}, f

_{BPFO}, f

_{BPFI}, and f

_{BSF}of the inboard row are 0.42X, 6.29X, 8.71X, and 2.47X, respectively, whereas f

_{FTF}, f

_{BPFO}, f

_{BPFI}, and f

_{BSF}of the outboard row are 0.42X, 6.79X, 9.21X, and 2.65X, respectively. Consequently, the value observed for 6.79X in Figure 9 is consistent with f

_{BPFO}of the outboard row. This implies that a defect on the outer ring of the outboard row was detected in the vibration of the wheel bearing. Thus, the excitation force that induces the noise and vibration of the assembled wheel bearing is generated by the outer-ring defect of the wheel-bearing outboard row.

## 5. Simulation for Structural Defect

_{BPFO}(22.73 Hz at 200 RPM). Figure 15 shows the values of vibration magnitude and roundness for bolt tightening torques of 60, 100, and 140 Nm. As shown in Figure 15, when the bolt tightening torques are 60, 100, and 140 Nm, the roundness of the outer ring in the outboard row is 0.005, 0.009, and 0.013 mm, respectively. Meanwhile, the vibration magnitudes were 0.053, 0.078, and 0.105 m/s

^{2}, respectively, with respect to the bolt tightening torque. Consequently, when the bolt-tightening torque increases, not only the value of roundness but also the vibration magnitude increases. Therefore, it can be concluded that the deterioration of the roundness in the outer ring by bolt fastening leads to vibration in the assembled wheel bearing.

## 6. Conclusions

- When assembling the wheel bearing, dust shield, and knuckle with bolts, a relatively large radial deformation occurred in the outer ring of the inboard/outboard row along with the bending deformation of the outer ring flange.
- The radial deformation of the outer ring in the outboard row is larger than that of the outer ring in the inboard row. Overall, the distortion of the outer ring in the outboard row causes structural defects in the wheel bearing.
- The excitation force generated by the defect in the outer ring induces the vibration of the wheel bearing.
- The noise of the assembled wheel bearing is radiated by the vibration corresponding to the natural frequencies of the dust shield, and it has a frequency in the range of 800–1300 Hz.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 3.**Time responses for the noise and vibration of the assembled wheel bearing: (

**a**) noise, (

**b**) vibration of the dust shield, and (

**c**) vibration of the outer ring.

**Figure 4.**Frequency spectra for the noise and vibration of the assembled wheel bearing: (

**a**) noise, (

**b**) vibration of the dust shield, and (

**c**) vibration of the outer ring.

**Figure 5.**Waterfall plot of the noise and vibration for various rotating speeds of the assembled wheel bearing: (

**a**) noise, (

**b**) vibration of the dust shield, and (

**c**) vibration of the outer ring.

**Figure 8.**Mode shapes of the dust shield corresponding to natural frequencies of (

**a**) 888 Hz, (

**b**) 940 Hz, (

**c**) 998 Hz, (

**d**) 1120 Hz, (

**e**) 1200 Hz, and (

**f**) 1300 Hz.

**Figure 9.**Magnified waterfall plot for the outer ring vibration of Figure 5c.

**Figure 10.**Finite element model of the assembled wheel bearing: (

**a**) meshed model and (

**b**) boundary conditions.

**Figure 14.**Roundness of the outer ring raceway according to the location: (

**a**) inboard row and (

**b**) outboard row.

**Figure 15.**Variation in the vibration magnitude and the roundness of outer ring with respect to the bolt tightening torque.

N | B_{d} (mm) | P_{d} (mm) | θ (rad) | |
---|---|---|---|---|

Inboard row | 15 | 13.5 | 68.6 | 0.611 |

Outboard row | 16 | 13.5 | 73.2 | 0.611 |

**Table 2.**Comparison of the natural frequencies of the dust shield, peak vibration frequencies of the dust shield, and peak noise frequencies of the assembled wheel bearing.

Natural frequencies of the dust shield (Hz) | 104 | 124 | 166 | 180 | 384 | 574 | 779 | 888 | 940 | 998 | 1120 | 1200 | 1300 |

Peak vibration frequencies of the dust shield (Hz) | 107 | 125 | 170 | 180 | 387 | 578 | 783 | 940 | 1000 | 1125 | 1206 | 1306 | |

Peak noise frequencies of the assembled wheel bearing (Hz) | 896 | 940 | 1000 | 1125 | 1206 | 1306 |

**Table 3.**Characteristic frequencies (defect frequencies) of the wheel bearing (X is the rotating frequency).

f_{FTF} | f_{BPFO} | f_{BPFI} | f_{BSF} | |
---|---|---|---|---|

Inboard row | 0.42X | 6.29X | 8.71X | 2.47X |

Outboard row | 0.42X | 6.79X | 9.21X | 2.65X |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Kim, J.; Kwon, S.; Ryu, S.; Lee, S.; Jeong, J.; Chung, J.
Noise Identification for an Automotive Wheel Bearing. *Appl. Sci.* **2022**, *12*, 5515.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app12115515

**AMA Style**

Kim J, Kwon S, Ryu S, Lee S, Jeong J, Chung J.
Noise Identification for an Automotive Wheel Bearing. *Applied Sciences*. 2022; 12(11):5515.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app12115515

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Kim, Jaewon, Seongmin Kwon, Seokwon Ryu, Seungpyo Lee, Jaeil Jeong, and Jintai Chung.
2022. "Noise Identification for an Automotive Wheel Bearing" *Applied Sciences* 12, no. 11: 5515.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app12115515