Language of Driving for Autonomous Vehicles
2. Related Studies
3. Language of Driving
4.1. Experimental Setup
4.2. Focus Group Interview
5.1. Survey among Passengers
5.2. Survey among Other Road Users
5.3. Additional Suggestions from Participants
- Speed—people want the buses to drive faster (this was the most common comment).
- Vehicle-to-passenger communication:
- The bus should preferably deliver messages in several languages;
- The bus should be more communicative and explain what and why it is doing something (e.g., why the bus has braked suddenly);
- There was a suggestion to play lounge music inside the bus.
- Language of driving:
- More audio should be used to communicate with other participants in the traffic, as the signs shown in Table 1 were not fully understood or it was hard to see them under direct sunlight. The audio message should also be shown as text on the screen(s), as it can be hard to hear in traffic;
- Some suggested using only text instead of the signs in Table 1.
- Both the interior and outer design should be more appealing;
- The use of brighter colors was recommended to better differentiate AV buses from regular vehicles.
- Smart bus stops and the size of the bus:
- The one who orders the bus should also be the one who enters the vehicle, as these shuttles are quite small in size, taking up to 6 people;
- The size of the bus should be bigger and accommodate at least 10 people.
- Passenger and traffic safety:
- Worry about not having a safety operator was expressed, as some passengers or even vandals might damage the bus;
- Passengers also worried about the missing seatbelts, which can easily be added and, according to the law, should be there if there is a wish for such buses to be operated in open traffic.
5.4. Survey among Public Sector Experts
5.5. Survey Summary and Interview Conclusions
6. Avenues for Future Research
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Trigger||The vehicle is approaching a pedestrian crossing; pre-defined either by vector map or V2I communication||Objects detected by the sensors||Objects detected by the sensors|
|Situation||The vehicle is approaching a pedestrian crossing||The vehicle is approaching the pedestrian crossing and objects are detected on the zebra or nearby||The vehicle is driving on the road, and objects are detected close to waypoints or their moving trajectory is about to cross with the vehicle|
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Kalda, K.; Pizzagalli, S.-L.; Soe, R.-M.; Sell, R.; Bellone, M. Language of Driving for Autonomous Vehicles. Appl. Sci. 2022, 12, 5406. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12115406
Kalda K, Pizzagalli S-L, Soe R-M, Sell R, Bellone M. Language of Driving for Autonomous Vehicles. Applied Sciences. 2022; 12(11):5406. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12115406Chicago/Turabian Style
Kalda, Krister, Simone-Luca Pizzagalli, Ralf-Martin Soe, Raivo Sell, and Mauro Bellone. 2022. "Language of Driving for Autonomous Vehicles" Applied Sciences 12, no. 11: 5406. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12115406