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Article

Mallard Detection Using Microphone Arrays Combined with Delay-and-Sum Beamforming for Smart and Remote Rice–Duck Farming

1
Faculty of Software and Information Science, Iwate Prefectural University, Takizawa City 020-0693, Japan
2
Faculty of Systems Science and Technology, Akita Prefectural University, Yurihonjo City 015-0055, Japan
3
Faculty of Bioresource Sciences, Akita Prefectural University, Akita City 010-0195, Japan
4
Institute of Engineering Innovation, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pasquale Catalano
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(1), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12010108
Received: 25 November 2021 / Revised: 19 December 2021 / Accepted: 22 December 2021 / Published: 23 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agriculture 4.0: From Precision Agriculture to Smart Farming)
This paper presents an estimation method for a sound source of pre-recorded mallard calls from acoustic information using two microphone arrays combined with delay-and-sum beamforming. Rice farming using mallards saves labor because mallards work instead of farmers. Nevertheless, the number of mallards declines when they are preyed upon by natural enemies such as crows, kites, and weasels. We consider that efficient management can be achieved by locating and identifying the locations of mallards and their natural enemies using acoustic information that can be widely sensed in a paddy field. For this study, we developed a prototype system that comprises two sets of microphone arrays. We used 64 microphones in all installed on our originally designed and assembled sensor mounts. We obtained three acoustic datasets in an outdoor environment for our benchmark evaluation. The experimentally obtained results demonstrated that the proposed system provides adequate accuracy for application to rice–duck farming. View Full-Text
Keywords: delay-and-sum beamforming; microphone array; position estimation; rice–duck farming; remote farming delay-and-sum beamforming; microphone array; position estimation; rice–duck farming; remote farming
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MDPI and ACS Style

Madokoro, H.; Yamamoto, S.; Watanabe, K.; Nishiguchi, M.; Nix, S.; Woo, H.; Sato, K. Mallard Detection Using Microphone Arrays Combined with Delay-and-Sum Beamforming for Smart and Remote Rice–Duck Farming. Appl. Sci. 2022, 12, 108. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12010108

AMA Style

Madokoro H, Yamamoto S, Watanabe K, Nishiguchi M, Nix S, Woo H, Sato K. Mallard Detection Using Microphone Arrays Combined with Delay-and-Sum Beamforming for Smart and Remote Rice–Duck Farming. Applied Sciences. 2022; 12(1):108. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12010108

Chicago/Turabian Style

Madokoro, Hirokazu, Satoshi Yamamoto, Kanji Watanabe, Masayuki Nishiguchi, Stephanie Nix, Hanwool Woo, and Kazuhito Sato. 2022. "Mallard Detection Using Microphone Arrays Combined with Delay-and-Sum Beamforming for Smart and Remote Rice–Duck Farming" Applied Sciences 12, no. 1: 108. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12010108

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