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Article

In Situ Assessment of 5G NR Massive MIMO Base Station Exposure in a Commercial Network in Bern, Switzerland

1
Department of Information Technology, Ghent University/imec, 9052 Ghent, Belgium
2
Ericsson Research, Ericsson AB, SE-16480 Stockholm, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Amalia Miliou
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(8), 3592; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11083592
Received: 1 April 2021 / Revised: 13 April 2021 / Accepted: 14 April 2021 / Published: 16 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering)
This paper describes the assessment of radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure from fifth generation (5G) new radio (NR) base stations in a commercial NR network in Bern, Switzerland. During the measurement campaign, four base station sites were investigated and the exposure induced by the NR massive multiple-input-multiple-output (MaMIMO) antennas was assessed at 22 positions, at distances from the base station between 30 m and 410 m. The NR base stations operated at 3.6 GHz and used codebook-based beamforming. While the actual field levels without inducing downlink traffic were very low (<0.05 V/m) due to a low traffic load and low antenna input powers of up to 8 W, setting up a maximum downlink traffic stream towards user equipment resulted in a time-averaged exposure level of up to 0.4 V/m, whereas the maximum extrapolated exposure level reached 0.6 V/m. Extrapolated to an antenna input power of 200 W, values of 4.3 V/m and 4.9 V/m, respectively, were obtained, which amount to 0.5–0.6% of the reference level recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). In Bern, it was found that the impact of the NR network on the total environmental RF exposure was very limited; with maximum downlink, it contributed 2% on average. Finally, it was also concluded that extrapolation to the maximum exposure level can be done without prior knowledge of the radiation patterns, directly based on the measurement of the Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH) resource elements. View Full-Text
Keywords: codebook-based beamforming; measurement; mobile telecommunications; non-ionizing radiation; radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF); spectrum analyzer codebook-based beamforming; measurement; mobile telecommunications; non-ionizing radiation; radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF); spectrum analyzer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Aerts, S.; Deprez, K.; Colombi, D.; Van den Bossche, M.; Verloock, L.; Martens, L.; Törnevik, C.; Joseph, W. In Situ Assessment of 5G NR Massive MIMO Base Station Exposure in a Commercial Network in Bern, Switzerland. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 3592. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11083592

AMA Style

Aerts S, Deprez K, Colombi D, Van den Bossche M, Verloock L, Martens L, Törnevik C, Joseph W. In Situ Assessment of 5G NR Massive MIMO Base Station Exposure in a Commercial Network in Bern, Switzerland. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(8):3592. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11083592

Chicago/Turabian Style

Aerts, Sam, Kenneth Deprez, Davide Colombi, Matthias Van den Bossche, Leen Verloock, Luc Martens, Christer Törnevik, and Wout Joseph. 2021. "In Situ Assessment of 5G NR Massive MIMO Base Station Exposure in a Commercial Network in Bern, Switzerland" Applied Sciences 11, no. 8: 3592. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11083592

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