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Discharge Coefficients of a Heavy Suspension Nozzle

1
Mechanical Engineering Department, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
2
Fluid Mechanics Department, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
3
Heat Engines Department, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maria Grazia De Giorgi
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(6), 2619; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11062619
Received: 8 February 2021 / Revised: 5 March 2021 / Accepted: 11 March 2021 / Published: 15 March 2021
The suspensions used in heavy vehicles often consist of several oil and two gas chambers. In order to perform an analytical study of the mass flow transferred between two gas chambers separated by a nozzle, and when considering the gas as compressible and real, it is usually needed to determine the discharge coefficient of the nozzle. The nozzle configuration analyzed in the present study consists of a T shape, and it is used to separate two nitrogen chambers employed in heavy vehicle suspensions. In the present study, under compressible dynamic real flow conditions and at operating pressures, discharge coefficients were determined based on experimental data. A test rig was constructed for this purpose, and air was used as working fluid. The study clarifies that discharge coefficients for the T shape nozzle studied not only depend on the pressure gradient between chambers but also on the flow direction. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations, using air as working fluid and when flowing in both nozzle directions, were undertaken, as well, and the fluid was considered as compressible and ideal. The CFD results deeply helped in understanding why the dynamic discharge coefficients were dependent on both the pressure ratio and flow direction, clarifying at which nozzle location, and for how long, chocked flow was to be expected. Experimentally-based results were compared with the CFD ones, validating both the experimental procedure and numerical methodologies presented. The information gathered in the present study is aimed to be used to mathematically characterize the dynamic performance of a real suspension. View Full-Text
Keywords: discharge coefficients; real compressible flow; Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD); chocked flow; analytical solutions based on experimental data discharge coefficients; real compressible flow; Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD); chocked flow; analytical solutions based on experimental data
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rio-Cano, C.; Tousi, N.M.; Bergada, J.M.; Comas, A. Discharge Coefficients of a Heavy Suspension Nozzle. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 2619. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11062619

AMA Style

Rio-Cano C, Tousi NM, Bergada JM, Comas A. Discharge Coefficients of a Heavy Suspension Nozzle. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(6):2619. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11062619

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rio-Cano, Carlos, Navid M. Tousi, Josep M. Bergada, and Angel Comas. 2021. "Discharge Coefficients of a Heavy Suspension Nozzle" Applied Sciences 11, no. 6: 2619. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11062619

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