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Article

Solar Potential in Saudi Arabia for Flat-Plate Surfaces of Varying Tilt Tracking the Sun

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Atmospheric Research Team, Institute of Environmental Research and Sustainable Development, National Observatory of Athens, GR-11810 Athens, Greece
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Laboratory of Soft Energy Applications and Environmental Protection, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of West Attica, GR-12243 Athens, Greece
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Department of Physics, College of General Studies, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran SA-31261, Saudi Arabia
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Centre of Research Excellence in Renewable Energy, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran SA-31261, Saudi Arabia
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Centre of Excellence for Climate Change Research, Department of Meteorology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah SA-21589, Saudi Arabia
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Climatic Research Unit, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR47TJ, UK
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Information and Computer Science Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran SA-31261, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alberto Benato
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(23), 11564; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112311564
Received: 24 October 2021 / Revised: 30 November 2021 / Accepted: 2 December 2021 / Published: 6 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Science and Technology)
The objective of the present work is to investigate the performance of flat-plate solar panels in Saudi Arabia that continuously follow the daily motion of the sun. To that end, the annual energy sums are estimated for such surfaces at 82 locations covering all Saudi Arabia. All calculations use a surface albedo of 0.2 and another one with a near-real value. The variation of the solar energy sums on annual, seasonal, and monthly basis is given for near-real ground albedos; the analysis provides regression equations for the energy sums as function of time. A map of the annual inclined solar energy for Saudi Arabia is derived and presented. The annual energy sums are found to vary between 2159 and 4078 kWhm−2year−1. Finally, a correction factor, introduced in a recent publication, is used; it is confirmed that the linear relationship between the correction factor and the ground-albedo ratio is general enough to be graphically representable as a nomogram. A discussion regarding the differences among solar systems on horizontal, fixed-tilt, 1-axis, and 2-axis systems is presented. View Full-Text
Keywords: solar potential; maximum energy; inclined surfaces; solar tracking; Saudi Arabia solar potential; maximum energy; inclined surfaces; solar tracking; Saudi Arabia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kambezidis, H.D.; Farahat, A.; Almazroui, M.; Ramadan, E. Solar Potential in Saudi Arabia for Flat-Plate Surfaces of Varying Tilt Tracking the Sun. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 11564. https://doi.org/10.3390/app112311564

AMA Style

Kambezidis HD, Farahat A, Almazroui M, Ramadan E. Solar Potential in Saudi Arabia for Flat-Plate Surfaces of Varying Tilt Tracking the Sun. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(23):11564. https://doi.org/10.3390/app112311564

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kambezidis, Harry D., Ashraf Farahat, Mansour Almazroui, and Emad Ramadan. 2021. "Solar Potential in Saudi Arabia for Flat-Plate Surfaces of Varying Tilt Tracking the Sun" Applied Sciences 11, no. 23: 11564. https://doi.org/10.3390/app112311564

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