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Article

Aquaphotomics Reveals Subtle Differences between Natural Mineral, Processed and Aged Water Using Temperature Perturbation Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

1
Department of Integration of Chinese and Western Medicine, School of Basic Medical Science, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China
2
Tasly Microcirculation Research Center, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191, China
3
Aquaphotomics Research Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Kobe University, Kobe 658-8501, Japan
4
Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan
5
Keio Global Research Institute, Keio University, Tokyo 108-8345, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both authors contributed to writing of the manuscript equally.
Academic Editor: Alessandra Biancolillo
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(19), 9337; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11199337
Received: 17 August 2021 / Revised: 18 September 2021 / Accepted: 23 September 2021 / Published: 8 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Spectroscopy Applications in Food Detection)
Current approaches to the quality control of water are unsatisfying due to either a high cost or the inability to capture all of the relevant information. In this study, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with aquaphotomics as a novel approach was assessed for the discrimination of natural, processed and aged water samples. Temperature perturbation of water samples was employed to probe the aqueous systems and reveal the hidden information. A radar chart named an aquagram was used to visualize and compare the absorbance spectral patterns of waters at different temperatures. For the spectra acquired at a constant temperature of 30 °C, the discrimination analysis of different water samples failed to produce satisfying results. However, under perturbation by increasing the temperature from 35 to 60 °C, the absorbance spectral pattern of different waters displayed in aquagrams revealed different, water-specific dynamics. Moreover, it was found that aged processed water changed with the temperature, whereas the same processed water, when freshly prepared, had hydrogen bonded structures unperturbed by temperature. In summary, the aquaphotomics approach to the NIRS analysis showed that the water absorbance spectral pattern can be used to describe the character and monitor dynamics of each water sample as a complex molecular system, whose behavior under temperature perturbation can reveal even subtle changes, such as aging and the loss of certain qualities during storage. View Full-Text
Keywords: aquaphotomics; water; discrimination; temperature; near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS); perturbation aquaphotomics; water; discrimination; temperature; near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS); perturbation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kato, Y.; Munćan, J.; Tsenkova, R.; Kojić, D.; Yasui, M.; Fan, J.-Y.; Han, J.-Y. Aquaphotomics Reveals Subtle Differences between Natural Mineral, Processed and Aged Water Using Temperature Perturbation Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 9337. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11199337

AMA Style

Kato Y, Munćan J, Tsenkova R, Kojić D, Yasui M, Fan J-Y, Han J-Y. Aquaphotomics Reveals Subtle Differences between Natural Mineral, Processed and Aged Water Using Temperature Perturbation Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(19):9337. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11199337

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kato, Yasuhiro, Jelena Munćan, Roumiana Tsenkova, Dušan Kojić, Masato Yasui, Jing-Yu Fan, and Jing-Yan Han. 2021. "Aquaphotomics Reveals Subtle Differences between Natural Mineral, Processed and Aged Water Using Temperature Perturbation Near-Infrared Spectroscopy" Applied Sciences 11, no. 19: 9337. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11199337

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