# Shared Mobility Problems: A Systematic Review on Types, Variants, Characteristics, and Solution Approaches

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. Previous Review Paper

## 3. Research Methodology

#### 3.1. Material Collection

- What would be the classification of the SMP based on problem types, variants, and characteristics?
- What are the solution approaches that have been employed to solve the SMP?
- What are the current trends of the SMP?
- What are the challenges and future work direction in the routing and matching optimisation of SMP?

#### 3.2. Descriptive Statistics

#### 3.3. Category Classification

## 4. Review of Literature

#### 4.1. Ridesharing Problem

#### 4.1.1. Exact Algorithms

#### One-to-One Ridesharing Problem

#### One-to-Many Ridesharing Problem

#### Many-to-Many Ridesharing Problem

#### 4.1.2. Heuristic and Metaheuristic Algorithms

#### One-to-One Ridesharing Problem

#### One-to-Many Ridesharing Problem

#### Many-to-One Ridesharing Problem

#### Many-to-Many Ridesharing Problem

#### Multiple Origins–Multiple Destinations Ridesharing Problem

#### 4.1.3. Other Algorithms

#### One-to-One Ridesharing Problem

#### One-to-Many Ridesharing Problem

#### 4.2. Carpooling Problem

#### 4.2.1. Exact Algorithms

#### One-to-Many Carpooling Problem

#### Multiple Origins–Multiple Destinations Carpooling Problem

#### 4.2.2. Heuristic and Metaheuristic Algorithms

#### One-to-One Carpooling Problem

#### One-to-Many Carpooling Problem

#### Many-to-One Carpooling Problem

#### Multiple Origins–One Destination Carpooling Problem

#### One Origin–Multiple Destinations Carpooling Problem

#### 4.3. Taxisharing Problem

#### 4.3.1. Exact Algorithms

#### One-to-One Taxisharing Problem

#### One-to-Many Taxisharing Problem

#### 4.3.2. Heuristic and Metaheuristic Algorithms

#### One-to-One Taxisharing Problem

#### One-to-Many Taxisharing Problem

#### Many-to-Many Taxisharing Problem

#### One Origin–Multi Destinations Taxisharing Problem

#### Multiple Origins–Multiple Destinations Taxisharing Problem

#### 4.4. Buspooling Problem

#### Heuristic and Metaheuristic Algorithms

#### One-to-One Buspooling Problem

#### One-to-Many Buspooling Problem

#### 4.5. Vanpooling Problem

#### 4.6. Multi-Modal Problem

#### 4.6.1. Exact Algorithms in the Multi-Modal Problem

#### 4.6.2. Heuristic and Metaheuristic Algorithms in Multi-Modal Problems

#### 4.6.3. Other Algorithms in the Multi-Modal Problem

## 5. Current Trends

#### 5.1. Descriptive Analysis

#### 5.2. Overall Observations

## 6. Challenges and Future Works

#### 6.1. Adoption of Hybrid Algorithms

#### 6.2. Revitalisation of SMP during the Covid-19 Pandemic

#### 6.3. Implementation of SMP into Mobility as a Service

#### 6.4. Adoption of Electric Vehicles in SMP

#### 6.5. Inclusion of Multi-Tier and Multi-Modal Characteristic into Combined People and Freight Transportation Service with the rideshare Concept

## 7. Conclusions

## Supplementary Materials

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## Abbreviations

P2P | Peer-to-Peer |

SMP | Shared Mobility Problem |

PRISMA | Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis |

1–1 | One-to-One |

1–M | One-to-Many |

M–1 | Many-to-One |

M–M | Many-to-Many |

1O1D | One Origin–One Destination |

1OMD | One Origin–Multiple Destinations |

MO1D | Multiple Origins–One Destination |

MOMD | Multiple Origins–Multiple Destinations |

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Paper | Highlights | Year | Number of Papers |
---|---|---|---|

[4] | Challenges in economic, social, institutional, and technological aspects. Benefits and drawbacks of dynamic ridesharing. Future direction of dynamic ridesharing. | 1974–2010 | 12 |

[5] | Characteristics of dynamic ridesharing, rideshare variants, and multi-modal ridesharing problem. | 1977 – 2012 | 38 |

[2] | Explored the history of ridesharing in North America for five key phases. | 1942–2011 | 43 |

[1] | Detailed classification of the ridesharing system and matching agencies. | 1961–2013 | 52 |

[6] | Discussed the evolution of dynamic ridesharing from the past and present to its future with information and communication changes. | 1977–2011 | 19 |

[7] | Reviewed P2P ridesharing variants literature with solution algorithms. Future direction is discussed. | 2004–2020 | 42 |

[8] | Reviewed carsharing, ridesharing and carpooling with solution algorithms. Challenges and opportunities of ridesharing. | 2008–2019 | 86 |

Type of Publication | Year | ||||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

2010 | 2011 | 2012 | 2013 | 2014 | 2015 | 2016 | 2017 | 2018 | 2019 | 2020 | 2021 | Total | |

Journal | 0 | 4 | 3 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 9 | 10 | 12 | 13 | 15 | 3 | 87 |

Conference Proceedings | 0 | 4 | 5 | 2 | 2 | 3 | 2 | 3 | 1 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 23 |

Total | 0 | 8 | 8 | 7 | 8 | 10 | 11 | 13 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 3 | 110 |

Country | Year | ||||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

2010 | 2011 | 2012 | 2013 | 2014 | 2015 | 2016 | 2017 | 2018 | 2019 | 2020 | 2021 | Total | |

USA | 0 | 1 | 3 | 1 | 4 | 1 | 2 | 5 | 5 | 3 | 5 | 1 | 31 |

Ireland | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 |

Norway | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 1 |

Turkey | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 1 |

France | 0 | 0 | 0 | 2 | 0 | 3 | 1 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 8 |

Italy | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 4 |

Taiwan | 0 | 3 | 1 | 0 | 2 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 0 | 10 |

Singapore | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 2 |

Austria | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 1 |

China | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 2 | 2 | 1 | 0 | 2 | 3 | 0 | 10 |

Switzerland | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 |

Korea | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 |

Brazil | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 2 |

Luxembourg | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 |

Australia | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 |

Iran | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 1 |

Total | 0 | 4 | 4 | 5 | 7 | 9 | 8 | 10 | 7 | 8 | 13 | 1 | 76 |

Types | Problem Variants | Data Characteristics | Solution Approaches | |
---|---|---|---|---|

Drivers and Riders (D–R) | Origins and Destinations (O–D) | |||

Ridesharing | One-to-One | One Origin–One Destination | Static | Exact Algorithms |

Carpooling | One-to-Many | One Origin–Multiple Destinations | Stochastic | Heuristic and Metaheuristic |

Taxisharing | Many-to-One | Multiple Origins–One Destination | Dynamic | Other Algorithms |

Vanpooling | Many-to-Many | Multiple Origins–Multiple Destinations | ||

Buspooling | ||||

Multi-Modal |

Data Characteristics | Year | ||||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

2010 | 2011 | 2012 | 2013 | 2014 | 2015 | 2016 | 2017 | 2018 | 2019 | 2020 | 2021 | Total | |

Static | 0 | 3 | 3 | 2 | 3 | 2 | 6 | 4 | 10 | 9 | 7 | 0 | 49 |

Stochastic | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 2 |

Dynamic | 0 | 4 | 3 | 2 | 4 | 6 | 4 | 8 | 3 | 5 | 7 | 2 | 48 |

Static & Dynamic | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 4 |

Total | 0 | 7 | 6 | 5 | 8 | 10 | 11 | 13 | 13 | 14 | 14 | 2 | 103 |

Data Characteristics | Ridesharing | Carpooling | Taxisharing | Vanpooling | Buspooling | Multi-Modal | Total |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Static | 17 | 18 | 7 | 1 | 2 | 4 | 49 |

Stochastic | 1 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 2 |

Dynamic | 37 | 3 | 2 | 0 | 0 | 6 | 48 |

Static & Dynamic | 1 | 0 | 3 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 4 |

Total | 56 | 21 | 13 | 1 | 2 | 10 | 103 |

Solution Approaches | Year | ||||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

2010 | 2011 | 2012 | 2013 | 2014 | 2015 | 2016 | 2017 | 2018 | 2019 | 2020 | 2021 | Total | |

Exact only | 0 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 4 | 3 | 2 | 3 | 0 | 22 |

Heuristic & Metaheuristic | 0 | 6 | 6 | 3 | 3 | 5 | 7 | 4 | 9 | 10 | 10 | 1 | 64 |

Exact, Heuristic, & Metaheuristic | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 3 | 2 | 0 | 3 | 0 | 2 | 1 | 0 | 12 |

Other Approaches | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 2 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 5 |

Total | 0 | 7 | 6 | 5 | 8 | 10 | 11 | 13 | 13 | 14 | 14 | 2 | 103 |

Solution Approaches | Ridesharing | Carpooling | Taxisharing | Vanpooling | Buspooling | Multi-Modal | Total |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Exact only | 14 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 7 | 22 |

Heuristic & Metaheuristic | 33 | 18 | 10 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 64 |

Exact, Heuristic, & Metaheuristic | 6 | 3 | 2 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 12 |

Other Approaches | 3 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 2 | 5 |

Total | 56 | 21 | 13 | 1 | 2 | 10 | 103 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Ting, K.H.; Lee, L.S.; Pickl, S.; Seow, H.-V.
Shared Mobility Problems: A Systematic Review on Types, Variants, Characteristics, and Solution Approaches. *Appl. Sci.* **2021**, *11*, 7996.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app11177996

**AMA Style**

Ting KH, Lee LS, Pickl S, Seow H-V.
Shared Mobility Problems: A Systematic Review on Types, Variants, Characteristics, and Solution Approaches. *Applied Sciences*. 2021; 11(17):7996.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app11177996

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Ting, Kien Hua, Lai Soon Lee, Stefan Pickl, and Hsin-Vonn Seow.
2021. "Shared Mobility Problems: A Systematic Review on Types, Variants, Characteristics, and Solution Approaches" *Applied Sciences* 11, no. 17: 7996.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app11177996