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Article

Solidification/Stabilization of Contaminated Soil in a South Station of the Khurmala Oil Field in Kurdistan Region, Iraq

Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Erbil 44001, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
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Academic Editor: Paulo José da Venda Oliveira
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(16), 7474; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11167474
Received: 24 July 2021 / Revised: 10 August 2021 / Accepted: 12 August 2021 / Published: 14 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends and Prospects in Geotechnics)
Currently, the primary source of pollution is crude oil production. Crude oil production has dramatic consequences for farmlands, communities, and in terms of the construction materials required for earthworks. The main aims of the present study were to reduce the level of pollution caused by oil production in the Khurmala soil and then reuse it as a construction material. Soil remediation using the solidification/stabilization method was applied in the field using Portland limestone cement (CEM II). The performance of using CEM II in the remediation process was then investigated in the laboratory by taking the natural, contaminated, and treated soils from the Khurmala site. Furthermore, the results of the soils were compared with their corresponding soil samples using ordinary Portland cement (OPC). The comparison was performed by investigating the physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of the soils. The discussion was supported using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results. Chemical and SEM results revealed that there were fourfold and tenfold decreases in the percentage of oil and grease using OPC and CEM II, respectively, confirming the higher performance of using CEM II over OPC. The values of the coefficient of permeability, shear strength parameters, and California bearing ratio of the treated soils were significantly improved, compared to those of the contaminated soils. View Full-Text
Keywords: cement; soil contamination; oil field; SEM; treatment cement; soil contamination; oil field; SEM; treatment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Abdulhamid, S.N.; Hasan, A.M.; Aziz, S.Q. Solidification/Stabilization of Contaminated Soil in a South Station of the Khurmala Oil Field in Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 7474. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11167474

AMA Style

Abdulhamid SN, Hasan AM, Aziz SQ. Solidification/Stabilization of Contaminated Soil in a South Station of the Khurmala Oil Field in Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(16):7474. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11167474

Chicago/Turabian Style

Abdulhamid, Sazan Nariman, Ahmed Mohammed Hasan, and Shuokr Qarani Aziz. 2021. "Solidification/Stabilization of Contaminated Soil in a South Station of the Khurmala Oil Field in Kurdistan Region, Iraq" Applied Sciences 11, no. 16: 7474. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11167474

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