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Article

Ready-to-Eat Sandwiches as Source of Pathogens Endowed with Antibiotic Resistance and Other Virulence Factors

Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via G. Campi 103/287, 41125 Modena, Italy
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andrea Salvo
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(16), 7177; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11167177
Received: 14 July 2021 / Revised: 28 July 2021 / Accepted: 30 July 2021 / Published: 4 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-Art of Microbial Concerns in Food Safety)
The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize the bacterial load present in twenty-four Ready-To-Eat (RTE) sandwiches, purchased at refrigerated vending machines and supermarkets in the province of Modena (Italy). We isolated 54 bacterial strains, including pathogens of interest in food safety, such as Listeria, Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Yersinia, Aeromonas and Acinetobacter spp. Phenotypic tests have been performed on these pathogens to detect the presence of virulence factors, such as gelatinase production and hemolytic capability. To test their antibiotic resistance features, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against eight commonly used antibiotics (Amikacin, Ciprofloxacin, Ampicillin, Oxacillin, Imipenem, Tetracycline, Erythromycin and Vancomycin) was also evaluated. The results showed that among the 54 isolates, fifty percent (50%) belonged to harmless microorganisms (Leuconostoc and Lactococcus), whereas the remaining fifty percent (50%) included pathogenic bacteria (Listeria ivanovii, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia, and Citrobacter spp.), species responsible for pathologies often difficult to treat due to the presence of antibiotic resistance features. This study demonstrates the importance of thorough controls, both during the production and marketing of RTE food like sandwiches, to avoid reaching the infectious load and the onset of pathologies, particularly dangerous for old and immunocompromised patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: sandwiches; pathogens; Listeria; antibiotic resistance; virulence factors sandwiches; pathogens; Listeria; antibiotic resistance; virulence factors
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MDPI and ACS Style

Camellini, S.; Iseppi, R.; Condò, C.; Messi, P. Ready-to-Eat Sandwiches as Source of Pathogens Endowed with Antibiotic Resistance and Other Virulence Factors. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 7177. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11167177

AMA Style

Camellini S, Iseppi R, Condò C, Messi P. Ready-to-Eat Sandwiches as Source of Pathogens Endowed with Antibiotic Resistance and Other Virulence Factors. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(16):7177. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11167177

Chicago/Turabian Style

Camellini, Stefania, Ramona Iseppi, Carla Condò, and Patrizia Messi. 2021. "Ready-to-Eat Sandwiches as Source of Pathogens Endowed with Antibiotic Resistance and Other Virulence Factors" Applied Sciences 11, no. 16: 7177. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11167177

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