Towards DC Energy Efficient Homes
2. Home Devices Analysis
3. Factors for DC Installations
3.1. Generalization of Electric Vehicles
- Unplugged: consists of wireless charging with three possible scenarios: at home, at a bus or taxi station (short time), or on-route.
- AC: for regular charging of EVs. The power is converted into DC inside the EV, so long charging periods are required. The typical connector used for this type of charging is a Type 2.
- AC and DC: an enhanced version of the previous one. The connector has additional power contacts (DC) for faster charging. The connector used is the CCS combo 2.
- DC: fast charging due to exclusive operation of DC. The conversion from AC to DC is performed outside the vehicle. A Type 4 connector, also known as CHAdeMO, is the standard connector.
3.2. Batteries at Home
3.3. Availability of DC Household Devices
3.5. Distributed Generation and Renewables Available at Home
3.6. Installation of DC at Home
3.7. Use of Exercise Devices to Charge Batteries
3.8. Standarization of DC Connectors
4. Possible Scenarios for Electrical Installations at Home
4.1. Scenario 1: Current Scenario
4.2. Scenario 2: AC/DC Converters Close to Sockets
4.3. Scenario 3: AC and DC Distribution along the House
4.4. Scenario 4: DC Distribution and DC/AC Inversion in Essential Cases
5. Case Study: Scenarios Analysis and Comparison
- The cost of the installation is the same for all scenarios. The installation may include a HESS, a classic AC distribution of power and/or a new DC one, it may contain DC/DC converters, classic sockets, DC types, etc. The tendency of the price of the full installation in all scenarios will converge due to the competitiveness, the reduction of the prices considering economies of scale and the evolution of prices of HESSs.
- Energy consumption due to the different processes of conversion related to the HESS, AC/DC and DC/AC, is not considered here. In this case, the justification is that those losses are not part of the energy distribution. Instead, they are part of energy storage. This process would be critical in the future and the price of the related losses would be covered by charging the HESS during the low-price period and by discharging it during the high-price one. In fact, the low-price period corresponds to a high availability of renewables in the electrical network. Therefore, those losses are part of the energy that is going to be discarded. Note that if the scenarios also contain HESS and PV, the efficiency will be higher. Thus, there are fewer losses because no rectification is needed. For example, for a typical value of 90% in the DC/AC conversion and 80% in the AC/DC one, a house will be 16% more efficient.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
|DoD||Depth of Discharge|
|HED||Home Exercise Devices|
|HESS||Home Electrical Storage System|
|HEV||Hybrid Electric Vehicle|
|NZEH||Nearly Zero Energy Home|
|PHEV||Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle|
|PoE||Power over Ethernet|
|ZEH||Zero Energy Home|
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|Device||Motor||Power (W)||DC Version|
|Washing Machine||YES 1||2300||NO|
|Clothes Dryer||YES 1||2800||NO|
|Game Console||NO||350||YES 3|
|Coffee Machine||YES 2||1100||YES|
|Extractor Hood||YES 1||146||YES|
|Air Conditioning||YES 1||5300||YES|
|Hair Dryer||YES 2||2100||YES|
|Vacuum Cleaner||YES 2||2400||YES 3|
|Elec. Toothbrush||NO||2000||YES 3|
|Device||AC/DC||Scenario 1||Scenario 2||Scenario 3||Scenario 4|
|Total without EV||2512||2512||2316||2469|
|Savings without EV||-||0||196||43|
|Total with EV||4312||4312||3576||3729|
|Savings with EV||-||0||736||583|
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Villanueva, D.; Cordeiro-Costas, M.; Feijóo-Lorenzo, A.E.; Fernández-Otero, A.; Miguez-García, E. Towards DC Energy Efficient Homes. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 6005. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11136005
Villanueva D, Cordeiro-Costas M, Feijóo-Lorenzo AE, Fernández-Otero A, Miguez-García E. Towards DC Energy Efficient Homes. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(13):6005. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11136005Chicago/Turabian Style
Villanueva, Daniel, Moisés Cordeiro-Costas, Andrés E. Feijóo-Lorenzo, Antonio Fernández-Otero, and Edelmiro Miguez-García. 2021. "Towards DC Energy Efficient Homes" Applied Sciences 11, no. 13: 6005. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11136005