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Open AccessArticle

The Protective Effect of New Carnosine-Hyaluronic Acid Conjugate on the Inflammation and Cartilage Degradation in the Experimental Model of Osteoarthritis

Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Science, University of Messina, 98166 Messina, Italy
Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania, Italy
Department of Pharmacological and Physiological Science, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO 63104, USA
Fidia Farmaceutici, 96017 Noto (SR), Italy
Fidia Farmaceutici, 35031 Abano Terme (PD), Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 1324;
Received: 10 January 2020 / Revised: 11 February 2020 / Accepted: 12 February 2020 / Published: 15 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Substances: Properties, Applications and or Toxicities)
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease that currently has no cure. There are numerous studies showing that carnosine and hyaluronic acid (HA) have a positive pharmacological action during joint inflammation. For this reason, the goal of this research was to discover the protective effect of a new carnosine conjugate with hyaluronic acid (FidHycarn) on the inflammatory response and on the cartilage degradation in an in vivo experimental model of OA. This model was induced by a single intra-articular ( injection of 25 µL of normal saline with 1 mg of monosodium iodoacetate solution (MIA) in the knee joint of rats. MIA injection caused histological alterations and degradation of the cartilage, as well as behavioral changes. Oral treatment with FidHycarn ameliorated the macroscopic signs, improved thermal hyperalgesia and the weight distribution of the hind paw, and decreased histological and radiographic alterations. The oxidative damage was analyzed by evaluating the levels of nitrotyrosine and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) that were significantly reduced in FidHycarn rats. Moreover, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were also significantly reduced by FidHycarn. Therefore, for the first time, the effectiveness of oral administration of FidHycarn has been demonstrated in an osteoarthritis model. In conclusion, the new formulation could represent an interesting therapeutic strategy to combat osteoarthritis. View Full-Text
Keywords: osteoarthritis; carnosine; hyaluronic acid; inflammation; oxidative stress osteoarthritis; carnosine; hyaluronic acid; inflammation; oxidative stress
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Siracusa, R.; Impellizzeri, D.; Cordaro, M.; Peritore, A.F.; Gugliandolo, E.; D’Amico, R.; Fusco, R.; Crupi, R.; Rizzarelli, E.; Cuzzocrea, S.; Vaccaro, S.; Pulicetta, M.; Greco, V.; Sciuto, S.; Schiavinato, A.; Messina, L.; Di Paola, R. The Protective Effect of New Carnosine-Hyaluronic Acid Conjugate on the Inflammation and Cartilage Degradation in the Experimental Model of Osteoarthritis. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 1324.

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