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Open AccessArticle

Detecting and Localizing Dents on Vehicle Bodies Using Region-Based Convolutional Neural Network

1
School of Industrial Engineering, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 44610, Korea
2
Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Dongguk University, Seoul 04620, Korea
3
Department of Computer Science, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 37673, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 1250; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10041250
Received: 4 January 2020 / Revised: 8 February 2020 / Accepted: 10 February 2020 / Published: 13 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Deep Learning Ⅱ)
Detection and localization of the dents on a vehicle body that occurs during manufacturing is critical to achieve the appearance quality of a new vehicle. This study proposes a region-based convolutional neural network (R-CNN) to detect and localize dents for a vehicle body inspection. For a better feature extraction, this study employed a lighting system, which can highlight dents on an image by projecting the Mach bands (bright-dark stripes). The R-CNN was trained using the highlighted images by the Mach bands, and heat-maps were prepared with the classification scores estimated from the R-CNN to localize dents. This study applied the proposed R-CNN to the inspection of dents on the surface of a car body and quantitatively analyzed its performances. The detection accuracy of the dents was 98.5% for the testing data set, and mean absolute error between the actual dents and estimated dents were 13.7 pixels, which were close to one another. The proposed R-CNN could be applied to detect and localize surface dents during the manufacture of vehicle bodies in the automobile industry. View Full-Text
Keywords: region-based convolutional neural network; Mach bands; vehicle body inspection; heat map; dent localization region-based convolutional neural network; Mach bands; vehicle body inspection; heat map; dent localization
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Park, S.H.; Tjolleng, A.; Chang, J.; Cha, M.; Park, J.; Jung, K. Detecting and Localizing Dents on Vehicle Bodies Using Region-Based Convolutional Neural Network. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 1250.

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