Networking services may be broken down in a disaster situation while people in the disaster area(s) strongly demand networking services for both communication and information sharing among users. This requires the fast restoration of networking services to fulfil the demand–supply gap. Although there are a number of studies on restoring communication and networking in disasters, few studies have explicitly examined the service availability during the temporary and partial recovery process of network restoration. From the perspective of users in the disaster area, it is important to be able to communicate or share information with people whenever they want/need to do so. Therefore, partial and local recovery of the networking services also plays an important role for improving service availability in the disaster situations. To assess the restoration effectiveness of networking services with a measure of user satisfaction level, we propose to use instant networking service availability (I-NSA), a novel metric, and we examine the effectiveness of networking service restoration solutions using the metric. I-NSA allows us to clearly express the instant availability of networking services that drastically changes with the elapsed time from the disaster occurrence in disaster areas. This paper examines the effective improvement of I-NSA when Local-and-Instant Clouds (LI-Clouds) are applied to the disaster situation. LI-Cloud has been designed and practically developed to provide deployable networking services to users. We verify that LI-Cloud enables significant improvement on the I-NSA performance in the fast restoration of networking services.
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