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Article

Long-Term Analysis of Wave Climate and Shoreline Change along the Gulf of California

1
Department of Civil Engineering, Autonomous University of Sinaloa, Culiacán Rosales 80040, Mexico
2
Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Autonomous University of Sinaloa, Culiacán Rosales 80040, Mexico
3
Engineering Institute, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City 04510, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(23), 8719; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10238719
Received: 15 November 2020 / Revised: 1 December 2020 / Accepted: 3 December 2020 / Published: 5 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mediterranean Beach Morphodynamics under Climate Change)
The last ten years have shown that Climate Change (CC) is a major global issue to attend to. The integration of its effects into coastal impact assessments and adaptation plans has gained great attention and interest, focused on avoiding or minimizing human lives and asset losses. Future scenarios of mean sea level rises and wave energy increase rates have then been computed, but downscaling still remains necessary to assess the possible local effects in small areas. In this context, the effects of CC on the wave climate in the Gulf of California (GC), Mexico, have received little attention, and no previous studies have tackled the long-term trend of wave climate at a regional scale. In this paper, the long-term trends of the wave height, wave period and wave energy in the GC were thus investigated, using the fifth-generation climate reanalysis dataset (ERA5). The long-term shoreline evolution was also examined from historical Landsat images, so as to identify erosional hotspots where intervention can be prioritized. The results indicate that both the mean and extreme wave regimes in the GC are getting more energetic and that two-thirds of the coast is suffering chronic erosion. A discrepancy between the trends of the wave period and wave height in some regions of the Gulf was also found. Finally, the importance of natural processes, human activity and CC in the shoreline change is highlighted, while addressing the need for future permanent field observations and studies in the GC. View Full-Text
Keywords: shoreline change; wave climate; climate change; Gulf of California shoreline change; wave climate; climate change; Gulf of California
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MDPI and ACS Style

Franco-Ochoa, C.; Zambrano-Medina, Y.; Plata-Rocha, W.; Monjardín-Armenta, S.; Rodríguez-Cueto, Y.; Escudero, M.; Mendoza, E. Long-Term Analysis of Wave Climate and Shoreline Change along the Gulf of California. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 8719. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10238719

AMA Style

Franco-Ochoa C, Zambrano-Medina Y, Plata-Rocha W, Monjardín-Armenta S, Rodríguez-Cueto Y, Escudero M, Mendoza E. Long-Term Analysis of Wave Climate and Shoreline Change along the Gulf of California. Applied Sciences. 2020; 10(23):8719. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10238719

Chicago/Turabian Style

Franco-Ochoa, Cuauhtémoc, Yedid Zambrano-Medina, Wenseslao Plata-Rocha, Sergio Monjardín-Armenta, Yandy Rodríguez-Cueto, Mireille Escudero, and Edgar Mendoza. 2020. "Long-Term Analysis of Wave Climate and Shoreline Change along the Gulf of California" Applied Sciences 10, no. 23: 8719. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10238719

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