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Open AccessArticle

A Bimodal Lognormal Distribution Model for the Prediction of COVID-19 Deaths

Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, University of Pisa, Largo Lucio Lazzarino, I-56122 Pisa, Italy
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(23), 8500; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10238500
Received: 28 October 2020 / Revised: 23 November 2020 / Accepted: 26 November 2020 / Published: 28 November 2020
The paper presents a phenomenological epidemiological model for the description and prediction of the time trends of COVID-19 deaths worldwide. A bimodal distribution function—defined as the mixture of two lognormal distributions—is assumed to model the time distribution of deaths in a country. The asymmetric lognormal distribution enables better data fitting with respect to symmetric distribution functions. Besides, the presence of a second mode allows the model to also describe second waves of the epidemic. For each country, the model has six parameters, which are determined by fitting the available data through a nonlinear least-squares procedure. The fitted curves can then be extrapolated to predict the future trends of the total and daily number of deaths. Results for the six continents and the World are obtained by summing those computed for the 210 countries in the Our World in Data (OWID) dataset. To assess the accuracy of predictions, a validation study is first conducted. Then, based on data available as of 30 September 2020, the future trends are extrapolated until the end of year 2020. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; coronavirus; second wave; phenomenological epidemiologic model; bimodal distribution; lognormal distribution COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; coronavirus; second wave; phenomenological epidemiologic model; bimodal distribution; lognormal distribution
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MDPI and ACS Style

Valvo, P.S. A Bimodal Lognormal Distribution Model for the Prediction of COVID-19 Deaths. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 8500.

AMA Style

Valvo PS. A Bimodal Lognormal Distribution Model for the Prediction of COVID-19 Deaths. Applied Sciences. 2020; 10(23):8500.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Valvo, Paolo S. 2020. "A Bimodal Lognormal Distribution Model for the Prediction of COVID-19 Deaths" Appl. Sci. 10, no. 23: 8500.

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