Next Article in Journal
DC-MMD-GAN: A New Maximum Mean Discrepancy Generative Adversarial Network Using Divide and Conquer
Next Article in Special Issue
Application of Satellite Remote Sensing in Monitoring Elevated Internal Temperatures of Landfills
Previous Article in Journal
Reduced Supply in the Organ Donor Market and How 3D Printing Can Address This Shortage: A Critical Inquiry into the Collateral Effects of Driverless Cars
Previous Article in Special Issue
Ignition of Deposited Wood Dust Layer by Selected Sources

Investigating Effects of Landfill Soil Gases on Landfill Elevated Subsurface Temperature

Department of Civil Construction and Environmental Engineering, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Hoehn Engineering Building, 1075 13th Street South, Birmingham, AL 35294-4440, USA
Department of Environmental Health Science, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, School of Public Health, Ryals Public Health Building (RPHB), 1665 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL 35294-0022, USA
Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Henry M. Rowan College of Engineering, Rowan University, Glassboro, NJ 08071, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(18), 6401;
Received: 30 July 2020 / Revised: 27 August 2020 / Accepted: 8 September 2020 / Published: 14 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hazardous Waste Treatment)
Subsurface temperature is a critical indicator for the identification of the risk associated with subsurface fire hazards in landfills. Most operational landfills in the United States (US) have experienced exothermic reactions in their subsurface. The subsurface landfill area is composed of various gases generated from chemical reactions inside the landfills. Federal laws in the US mandate the monitoring of gases in landfills to prevent hazardous events such as landfill fire breakouts. There are insufficient investigations conducted to identify the causes of landfill fire hazards. The objective of this research is to develop a methodological approach to this issue. In this study, the relationship was investigated between the subsurface elevated temperature (SET) and soil gases (i.e., methane, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen, and oxygen) with the greatest influence in landfills. The significance level of the effect of soil gases on the SET was assessed using a decision tree approach. A naïve Bayes technique for conditional probability was implemented to investigate how different gas combinations can affect different temperature ranges with respect to the safe and unsafe states of these gases. The results indicate that methane and carbon dioxide gases are strongly associated with SETs. Among sixteen possible gas combinations, three were identified as the most probable predictors of SETs. A three-step risk assessment framework is proposed to identify the risk of landfill fire incidents. The key findings of this research could be beneficial to landfill authorities and better ensure the safety of the community health and environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: elevated temperature; emissions; gases; landfill fire; methane; risk elevated temperature; emissions; gases; landfill fire; methane; risk
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Sabrin, S.; Nazari, R.; Fahad, M.G.R.; Karimi, M.; Everett, J.W.; Peters, R.W. Investigating Effects of Landfill Soil Gases on Landfill Elevated Subsurface Temperature. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 6401.

AMA Style

Sabrin S, Nazari R, Fahad MGR, Karimi M, Everett JW, Peters RW. Investigating Effects of Landfill Soil Gases on Landfill Elevated Subsurface Temperature. Applied Sciences. 2020; 10(18):6401.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sabrin, Samain, Rouzbeh Nazari, Md Golam Rabbani Fahad, Maryam Karimi, Jess W. Everett, and Robert W. Peters. 2020. "Investigating Effects of Landfill Soil Gases on Landfill Elevated Subsurface Temperature" Applied Sciences 10, no. 18: 6401.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop