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Article

Study on the Effect of Contrast Agent on Biofilms and Their Visualization in Porous Substrate Using X-ray μCT

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Radiation Physics Research Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86/N12, B-9000 Gent, Belgium
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Centre for X-ray Tomography, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86/N12, B-9000 Gent, Belgium
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Microbial Communities & Antimicrobials (MICA) Laboratory, KU Leuven, Centre of Microbial and Plant Genetics, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium
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Pore-Scale Processes in Geomaterials Research Group (PProGRess), Department of Geology, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281/S8, B-9000 Gent, Belgium
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Environmental Hydrogeology, Department of Earth Sciences, Utrecht University, Princetonlaan 8a, 3584 CB Utrecht, The Netherlands
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The Procter and Gamble Company, Newcastle Innovation Center, Whitley Road, Longbenton, Newcastle-Upon-Tyne NE12 9TS, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(16), 5435; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10165435
Received: 2 July 2020 / Revised: 30 July 2020 / Accepted: 4 August 2020 / Published: 6 August 2020
Investigation of biofilms and visualization using non-destructive imaging techniques like X-ray μCT has recently gained interest. Biofilms are congregations of microorganisms that attach to surfaces and comprise of microbial cells embedded in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). They are ubiquitous entities that are commonly found in any non-sterile setting and have direct implications on human health. Methods to visualize them in-situ are highly needed to understand their behaviour (attachment and detachment) inside a substrate. Contrast-enhanced X-ray μCT is a 3D imaging technique that is capable of visualising objects that have very low attenuation contrast. The use of contrast agents in X-ray μCT has been an evolving process, however, the possible toxic effect of these chemical compounds against biofilms has not been studied in detail. In this study, we focus on the toxic effect of contrast agents and study the diffusion and drainage of contrast agents in biofilms. We propose using water-soluble potassium bromide (KBr) as a suitable contrast agent for enhancement of the attenuation coefficient of a monoculture of Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilms inside a porous substrate. At the given concentration, KBr proved to be less bactericidal compared to other commonly used contrast agents and at 5% w/v concentration we were able to clearly distinguish between the biofilm and the porous substrate. View Full-Text
Keywords: X-ray μCT; biofilms; contrast agents; in-situ; flow cell X-ray μCT; biofilms; contrast agents; in-situ; flow cell
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shastry, A.; Villanueva, X.; Steenackers, H.; Cnudde, V.; Robles, E.; Boone, M.N. Study on the Effect of Contrast Agent on Biofilms and Their Visualization in Porous Substrate Using X-ray μCT. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 5435. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10165435

AMA Style

Shastry A, Villanueva X, Steenackers H, Cnudde V, Robles E, Boone MN. Study on the Effect of Contrast Agent on Biofilms and Their Visualization in Porous Substrate Using X-ray μCT. Applied Sciences. 2020; 10(16):5435. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10165435

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shastry, Abhishek, Xabier Villanueva, Hans Steenackers, Veerle Cnudde, Eric Robles, and Matthieu N. Boone 2020. "Study on the Effect of Contrast Agent on Biofilms and Their Visualization in Porous Substrate Using X-ray μCT" Applied Sciences 10, no. 16: 5435. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10165435

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